A Survey Study of the Characteristic, Causes, and Symptoms of Anemia Among Pregnant Women and Its Effects on Women and Fetus


  • Arwa Alnuimy Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
  • Hawra Safwan Mahfouz Biology Department, Education for Pure Sciences College, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq.




Pregnancy is a physiological condition characterized by a high demand for energy and an increased need for oxygen. This demand escalates as pregnancy progresses to meet the requirements of both the mother and the fetus. Anemia, on the other hand, results from an imbalance in red blood cells is often caused by iron deficiency. When iron levels are low, it leads to a decrease in hemoglobin, which, in turn, impairs the body's ability to provide the necessary oxygen for its vital processes. The study involved 96 pregnant women who were surveyed using a questionnaire. Among them, 74 exhibited signs and symptoms of anemia, while 22 were included in the control group. Additionally, through the calculation of proportions, we analyzed the symptoms that later manifested in both the mothers and the fetuses. It discovered that the anemia was most prevalent in the age group of 36 to 45. The results of the research sample indicated that miscarriages and stillbirths occurred, although in relatively low numbers. The most prominent symptoms reported by pregnant women with anemia were headaches and dizziness, while the affected fetuses exhibited jaundice and low blood pressure. In brief, anemia is a condition that can affect pregnant women of all ages and is often caused by a lack of access to health information and an inadequate diet for their stage of pregnancy.



Al-Dulaimi, Wafa Jassim Salman (2016). The relationship between the age of the expectant mother and the values of hemoglobin and packed blood cells (PCV) in the last trimester of pregnancy for different age groups. Journal of the Collegoe f Education for Girls - University of Baghdad, 27 (4): 1468-1474.

Allen, L. H. (2001). Biological Mechanisms That Might underlie irons American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1218-1225.ivingstone.

Al-Mahjoubi, Fathia Al-Toumi, Intisar Koueider, Fawzia Al-Fard, Asmahan. (2020). The causes of anemia in pregnant Libyan women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Sabratha Teaching Hospital. Scientific Journal of Applied Sciences of Sabratha University. 3. 163-178. 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.163-178.

Al-Mehaisen, L., Khader, Y., Al-Kuran, O., Abu Issa, F., and Amarin, Z. (2011). Maternal anemia in rural jordan: room for improvement. Anemia, 2011, 381812.

Beers, M.H. ,Porter, R.S., Kaplan, J.L., Berkwits, M. (2006).Hematology and oncology .Journal of the Australian traditiona- MedicineSociety anemia 1993-2005.Geneva: World Health Organization.

Berhe, K., Gebrearegay, F. & Gebremariam, H (2019) Prevalence and associated factors of zinc deficiency among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 19, 1663. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7979-

Bekele, A., Tilahun, M., and Mekuria, A. (2016). Prevalence of Anemia and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Health Institutions of Arba Minch Town, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Anemia, 2016, 1073192

Buseri FI, Uko EK, Jeremiah ZA. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Nigeria. open haematol J,; 2: 14.

Dors, N., Rodrigues Pereira, R., van Zwieten, R., Fijnvandraat, K., and Peters, M. (2008). Glucose-6-fosfaatdehydrogenasedeficiëntie: klinische presentatie en uitlokkende factoren [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: clinical presentation and eliciting factors]. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 152(18), 1029–1033.

Fishbane, S., and Spinowitz, B. (2018). Update on Anemia in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD: Core Curriculum 2018. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 71(3), 423–435.

Gatea, abeer, Tawfeeq, wafaa, & hassan, M. (2013). The Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia among Pregnant Women in Ibn- Albaldy Hospital. Iraqi National Journal of Nursing Specialties, 26(1), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.58897/injns.v26i1.164

Gohar, Ghada. (2014) Anemia during pregnancy. Riyadh Journal, 16679, 32-33.

Hasswane, N., Bouziane, A., Mrabet, M., Laamiri, F. , Aguenaou, H. and Barkat, A. (2015) Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Pregnancy in a Group of Moroccan Pregnant Women. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 88-97.

Ho, H. Y., and Cheng, M. L., and Chiu D.T.Y. (2007). G6PD deficiency form oxidative stress to cellular function. Redox. Aust. J. Basic and applied science., 3(3):2016-2023, 2009-2023 Rep., 12(3):109-118.

Jiji D.B. and Rajagopal K. (2014). A study to assess the knowledge and risk factors of anaemia among the pregnant women attending selected health care facilities in Sebha, Libyan Journal of Science, 4 (1): 19-22.

Killeen RB, Tambe A. Acute Anemia. 2023. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537232/

Mettananda, S., et al. (2018). "Anaemia among females in child-bearing age: Relative contributions, effects and interactions of α-and β-thalassaemia." PloS one 13(11): e0206928.

Polin, R. A. and Ditmar, M. F. (2001). Pediatric secrets. 3rd ed. Hanley and Belfus, Inc. Philadelphia, PP. 286-289.

Robinson, S. H. (1990). Degradation of hemoglobin. In: Williams, W. J.; et al., eds. Hematology, 4th ed. New York, McGraw- Hill, PP. 407-414.

Seemal V,(2012). Effect of SocioDemographic and Gestational Status on the development of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11 (7): P. 545-549.

Stevens G, Finucane M, De-Regil L, Paciorek C, Flaxman S, Branca F et al.; (2013). Nutrition Impact Model Study Group (Anaemia). Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. Lancet Glob Health.; 1: 16-25.

Stoltzfus, R. J., Heidkamp, R., Kenkel, D., and Habicht, J. P. (2007). Iron supplementation of young children: learning from the new evidence. Food and nutrition bulletin, 28(4 Suppl), S572–S584.

Tadesse SE, Seid O, Mariam YG, Fekadu A, and Wasihun Y. (2017). Determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia, unmatched case–control study. PLoS ONE., 12:e0173173.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Anaemia policy brief. WHO/NMH/NHD ;(14.4): 1- .6

Zekarias, B., Meleko, A., Hayder, A., Nigatu, A., and Yetagessu, T. (2017). Prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Mizan Tepi University Teaching Hospital, South West Ethiopia. Health Scien J, 11(5):, 1-.8




How to Cite

Alnuimy, A., & Mahfouz, H. S. (2023). A Survey Study of the Characteristic, Causes, and Symptoms of Anemia Among Pregnant Women and Its Effects on Women and Fetus. Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University, 3(2), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.37375/sjfssu.v3i2.1617