Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University <p>The Scientific Journal for the Faculty of Science-Sirte University (SJFSSU, henceforth) is a bi-annual peer-reviewed and open accessed journal issued electronically by the faculty of science at Sirte University. The SJFSSU aims to encourage research in the scientific community and publish papers reporting original work that are of high standards and contribute to the development of knowledge in all fields of applied and pure (theoretical) science, namely mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, zoology, botany, microbiology, astronomy, computer science, information technology, geology, environment science and oceanography.</p> en-US (د.هنية سعد) (Mahmoud Albarq) Mon, 17 Apr 2023 22:03:25 +0000 OJS 60 Formulate the Matrix Continued Fractions and Some Applications <p>A matrix continued fraction is a matrix representation of a continued fractions, It has the following formula:</p> <p>The matrix can be used to convert a continued fraction to a rational number by using matrix multiplication to calculate the matrix product of the continuous fraction matrix and the vector [1, 0]. Additionally, it can be used to calculate the convergent of a continued fraction by using matrix multiplication to calculate the matrix product of the continuous fraction matrix and the vector [1, 1]. It can also be used to represent and calculate the solutions of some type of recursive equations. The use of matrix representation of continued fractions allows for efficient computation of continued fraction expansions using matrix multiplication, which can be easily parallelized in parallel computation algorithms. This can lead to significant speedup in the computation of continued fractions and can be useful in various fields such as computer graphics.</p> Naglaa F. Abdul Hafeez Elfasy Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of radioactivity in the soil samples from Al Bayda city, Libya, and its radiological implications <p>The radioactivity concentration of the terrestrial radionuclides (<sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K) have been determined in soil samples collected from eight different locations around of Al Bayda city, Libya, using the sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Radioactivity concentrations for these elements were estimated and calculated at 0-10 cm depth, we found that an average values of 64.27 Bq/kg, 65.38 Bq/kg and 157.01 Bq/kg, respectively. As well as the radiological hazards were investigated at the same depth, it was found that the radium equivalent (Ra<sub>eq</sub>) with an average value of 169.85 Bq/kg and the average values for external and internal hazard indices were 0.46 and 0.63, respectively. While, the average values for Gamma and Alpha indices were 0.32 and 0.60, respectively.</p> <p>In addition, this study was conducted at a depth of 10-20 cm, and the average value of uranium was for <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K, were an average values of 63.76 Bq/kg, 57.89 Bq/kg, and 253.524 Bq/kg, respectively, and the radium equivalent (Ra<sub>eq</sub>) with an average value of 166.06 Bq/kg, and the average values for external and internal hazard indices were 0.45 and 0.62, respectively.The values of Alpha and Gamma indices with average values of 0.32 and 0.59, respectively.</p> <p>The average activity concentrations of the radionuclides were compared with Global average value where some values were higher than them. The radiological hazard indices of primitive radionuclides were also calculated and it was within the internationally permitted limits.</p> Salha Alsaadi, Areej Hazawi, Ahmed S. A. Elmzainy Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Metal Chelates of Copper and Nickel with Murexide in Mixed Isopropanol: Water Solvent: Spectrophotometric Study <p>A sensitive, accurate, and quick spectrophotometric technique for determining Ni(II) and Cu(II) in analytical samples employing murexide reagent was investigated in a water-isopropanol mixed solvent. UV/Vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the produced complexes. In three mixtures of water-isopropanol mixed solvent, various experimental parameters affecting complex formation were examined. For Ni(II) and Cu(II), the resulting complex in a 3:7 water-isopropanol mixed solvent showed maximum absorbance at λ<sub>max</sub> = 458 nm at pH 3.1 and 470 nm at pH 3.8, respectively. Beer's law was maintained in the concentration ranges of 0.2 to 3.5 ppm for Ni(II) and 0.2 to 4.0 ppm for Cu(II). The molar absorptivity (ε) and sensitivity values of the Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were determined to be (7800 l.mol<sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup> and 0.32 ppm<sup>-1</sup>) and (18700 L.mol<sup>-1</sup>.cm<sup>-1</sup> and 0.20 ppm<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. The continuous variation method was used to explore the structure of the prepared compound. The acquired results revealed that the complexes have a (1:2) (M:L) molar ratio, indicating that this method was more sensitive, precise, and accurate when the effect of Cl<sup>-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, CH<sub>3</sub>COO<sup>-</sup>, and SO<sub>4</sub><sup>-2</sup> was studied.</p> Khaled Muftah Elsherif, Zainab Alzalouk, Ahmed Zubi, Salima Al-Ddarwish Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Healthy of Workers in the Three Cement Factories of Expansion Badoush, New Badoush and Al-Rafidain in Nineveh Governorate <p>The current Study involved an assessment of the health of workers in three cement production plants and a comparison between them, as these factories were: Expansion Cement Factory, New Badoush cement factory and Al-Rafidain cement factory in Nineveh Governorate, as blood samples were collected for a period from the beginning of August to the end of December (2022), Included the study was (100) workers and for a control group (40), as the study aimed to know the effect of the air pollutants of the three cement factories on the workers by measuring (15) variables of different blood components (White blood cell (WBCs), red blood cell (RBCs), packed cell volume (PCV%), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration), platelet count (PLTs)), as well as measuring biochemical variables to evaluate kidney and liver functions, oxidants antioxidants status.</p> <p>It was observed that there was an increase in the number of both WBC and PLTs Among the three cement workers, especially the Badoush cement factory workers, and there was a reduction in the number of RBC, Hb concentration and PCV% in all cement workers relative to the control group, decrease&nbsp; it was more severe on Badoush workers.</p> <p>The results indicated a rise in the concentrations of urea and creatinine among the three cement workers, especially the Badoush cement factory workers, and less so among the Al-Rafidain workers, as well as an increase in the enzymes: CA, AST, ALT and ALP when compared with the control team.</p> <p>It was observed that there was the&nbsp; rise on the state of oxidative stress for the workers in the three factories and it was the highest among the workers in Badoush, Al-Rafidain, and Expansion factories, respectively, as a result of a decrease in the levels of antioxidants and an increase in the levels of oxidants when compared with the control group.</p> <p>In general, the study concluded that there is a clear Impact of cement pollutants on the workers' health in the three selected cement factories in Nineveh Governorate, and it was more affected by these pollutants on the workers of Badoush Cement, Expansion, and then Al-Rafidain, respectively.</p> Luay Al-Helaly, Aya A. H. Rasheed, Ayad F. Qasim Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of New Compounds Containing Benzotriazole Ring from 2 - chloro – N – (Substitutedphenyl) Acetamide <p>A series of 2 – (1H – benzo[d] 1, 2, 3 – triazol -1 – yl) – N – (substituted phenyl) acetamide (3 -8) were synthesized by reacting 1H -benzo [d] 1, 2, 3 – triazole <strong>(2)</strong> and 2 - chloro – N – (substituted phenyl) acetamide (a1 - a6) in DMF in present K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> was heated on the water bath. 1H – benzo [d] 1, 2, 3 – triazole <strong>(2)</strong> is a bicyclic heterocyclic system consisting of three nitrogen atoms and a fused benzene ring, showing a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Benzotriazole <strong>(2) </strong>can be synthesized by diazotization process using o -phenylene diamine with sodium nitrite and acetic acid. The synthesized compounds were isolated and purity was checked by the TLC method. The structures of all new benzotriazole derivatives were confirmed by melting point and spectroscopic methods (IR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, <sup>13</sup>CNMR, Mass spectrometry, and elementary analysis). Furthermore, the purpose of this research is to synthesize some heterocyclic compounds that are of importance in the field of science and research. In addition, most of the studies based on benzotriazole derivatives possess a wide spectrum of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and analgesic properties.</p> Ghazala Hashim, Hanan Bashir, Nsreen Abdalfarg Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Air Pollution: Selected Fuel Stations in Benghazi City, Libya <p>This study aims to measure the number of pollutants that can be existing in the air of Benghazi city. Twelve refueling stations from different regions of Benghazi City in Libya were selected. The ambient air quality at all stations was investigated. Also, the evaporation of fuels from loosely closed underground tanks has been investigated for two fuel stations. Drager X-am7000 and MiniRAE-3000 Instruments were used to measure the concentration of CH<sub>4</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>S, CO, O<sub>2</sub>, xylene, and benzene as pollutants in the atmosphere. The pollutant concentrations were within the range of the FEPA air quality standard in most stations; however, the measurement of these pollutants during tank refueling showed a high percentage in the surrounding area of the fuel tanks. Therefore, this study can contribute to understanding air pollutants exposure and its effects on human health.</p> Adel Najar, Mohmed A. I Amajbary, Abduslam H. A. Awarfaly, Tahani Aeyad, Mona H. Ali Bnhmad, Naima Aeyad, Aliaa M. M. Khalifa Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Aqueous Extract of Winter Jasmine Leaves Mediated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles <p>This study reports a rapid and eco-friendly green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution using winter jasmine leaves extract as a reducing agent of Ag<sup>+</sup> to Ag<sup>0</sup>. A visible Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at 420 nm which reflects the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. In addition to that, the synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by the color change of the solution. By studying the most important factors affecting the formation of AgNPs, it was noted that the productivity of AgNPs in the solution increased by increasing the pH of the solution, and the basic medium was the appropriate medium for the synthesis process. Also, the amount of produced AgNPs increased with the increase in temperature, volume of extract, reaction time, the extract volume ratio of the winter jasmine leaves, and silver nitrate concentration. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of winter jasmine leaves represents a suitable material for the biosynthesis of AgNPs, and large amounts of AgNPs with appropriate sizes may be obtained by controlling the parameters that affect the synthesis process.</p> Kawther Adaila, samia Elraies, abdounasser omar, Eman Ben Younis, Hiba Alhaj, Salsabel Shlebek, Sara Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Preptin Hormone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Induced After Infection with Coronavirus (Covid-19) <p>The research included a study of the levels of the hormone preptin and some biochemical variables in the blood serum of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) induced after infection with coronavirus (Covid-19). Those variables included: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and measurement of levels of antioxidants (Albumin, uric acid, fucose, and glutathione), as well as levels of oxidants compounds: Malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite in Mosul city on (16) a sample for patients and (40) samples for the control group, whose ages ranged between (35-70) years.</p> <p>The results showed that there was a significant increase in the levels of the preptin hormone, glucose, cholesterol and LDL, Beside of decrease in HDL, among T2D patients induced after corona compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in the TG, HDL, and uric acid between the patients group and the control group.</p> <p>The results indicated that there was a state of high oxidative stress through low levels of antioxidants for glutathione, albumin, and fucose, and a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde and peroxynitrite in people with diabetes mellitus developed after corona compared with the control group.</p> <p>The study concluded that the hormone preptin is a good indicator that reflects the status of T2D patients who developed after infection with corona, by comparing them with the levels of antioxidants and oxidants, as well as the levels of fucose and glucose.</p> Luay Al-Helaly, Zahraa M. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study into Using Plant Extracts as Indicators for the Endpoint in the Acid-Base Titrations <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="523"> <p>Acid-base titrations are the key part of volumetric analysis in the first year undergraduate chemistry practical program in Libya. Students are typically taught the procedures and skills necessary for acid-base titrations utilizing chemically synthesized indicators. Frequently utilized Synthetic indicators are sometimes difficult to obtain and highly hazardous to both people and aquatic life. Thus, the best option is to use natural dyes because it has been illustrated that some plant extracts exhibit the characteristics of synthetic dyes, making them usable for their use. Since this research emphasizes a return to green chemistry, it was necessary to search for alternative environmentally friendly indicators that are readily available, simple to prepare, and can be used to detect the endpoint of the reaction. The purpose of this article was to explore nine different types of aqueous extracts from various plants that can be used as indicators in acid-base titrations. The results showed that, similar to phenolphthalein, all of the investigated plant extracts are appropriate for strong-acid and strong-base titration.&nbsp; Moreover, hibiscus flower and cabbage leaf extracts are superior indicators for a strong-acid and strong-base titration to the synthesizers indicators. it was recommended that the use of these plant extracts as acid-base indicators should be combined in the teaching of acid-base titration. The amount of sodium hydroxide consumed at the endpoint were between 9.5 - 10 mL, while the pH of the solutions were between 6 - 9.7.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Aisha Alabbsi, Dania Abu Alassad, Ihssin Abdalsamed, Khadija Ahmida Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hydrogen Sulphide Strategy in Oil and Gas Field: Review <p>Hydrogen sulphide (H<sub>2</sub>S) is one of the most hazardous substances in oil and gas production fields when it comes to the risks posed by its presence. H<sub>2</sub>S is a naturally occurring gas found within oil, gas reservoirs, and sewage water. Chemically the gas is extremely toxic, flammable, and corrosive to different materials. H<sub>2</sub>S can strongly cause material cracking and environmental pollution and a reduction in oil quality. Thus, prevention measures are very important to produce gas containing even low levels of H<sub>2</sub>S. The prevention requires chemical treatment to remove H<sub>2</sub>S or convert the gas to an acceptable compound. Therefore, a big challenge was faced to develop a new technological method to manipulate H<sub>2</sub>S problems. This review evaluates strategies for crude oil desulfurization by reviewing desulfurization literature. In addition, the effects of hydrogen sulfide on metals and metal protection will be outlined. Finally, some perspectives on the effects of H<sub>2</sub>S on personnel health and safety will be discussed.</p> Ihssin Abubaker Abdalsamed, Ibrahim Ali Amar, Ahmed Al-abbasi, Elfitouri K. Ahmied, Abdusatar Abduallah Farouj, Jamal Ali Kawan, Mohammed Ali Awaj Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A new Variety (A. foliolosus var. viscosus (Webb & Berthel.) Essokne & Jury, comb. nov) From Canary Islands. <p>Twenty four species have been recognised in this genus. Subspecies rank has been applied to geographical variants of a species which are morphologically distinguishable. In addition, one new variety has been recognised which lacks glandular papillae on the calyx, and grows at a different altilude than the type. The range of descriptions, distributions and the key to the species were drawn up from field collections and herbarim material. All the specimens available to me have been examined, except where specimens were missing some parts (e.g. some sheets lacked flowers). The descriptions and the distributions of most of the taxa were taken directly from the type and herbarium specimens. Therefore, the species <em>Adenocarpus</em> <em>viscosus</em> (Leguminosae) is proposed as a new Variety to the Canary Islands. Its morphological, and ecological features are discussed, together with its relationship to, and differences from, the other species of <em>Adenocarpus</em> <em>foliolosus </em>(Ait.) DC. Furthermore, earlier Reading University fieldwork in Morocco suggested that the genus presently consists of ca. 25 species (Rafaa Essokne, <em>et al.,</em> 2012). However, in this paper <em>A. foliolosis</em> var. <em>viscosus</em> is recognized as a variety and accordingly described.</p> Stephen L. Jury , Rafaa A. Essokne Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement the germination characteristics in aged seeds of Hordeum vulgare plants by some invigoration solutions <p>Seeds viability and seed vigour decline during storage, <strong>The aim</strong> of this research was the improvement of seed quality by treatment with KNO3and ZnSO4 of <em>Hordeum vulgare</em> L. plants aged seeds.<strong>Experiment</strong> was on barley seeds storage for different periods of (1year and 4 years) in open storage type and treatment these by using seeds invigoration solutions , 3% zinc sulfate (ZnSO<sub>4</sub>),and 3% potassium nitrate (KNO<sub>3</sub>) in addition to non primed seed (control) to know their effect on viability and vigour of Seeds and determine the best one on them. <strong>The results</strong> showed that growth parametres, total available carbohydra­te (TAC) content and starch (St) contents decrease under long storage,while total soluble sugars (TSS) increased. While at treatment by ZnSO4 and KNO3 there wasan increase in total germination , mean germination time, radical and plumule lengths, seedling fresh and dry weight, and vigour index , also increasing in TSS, St, and TAC contents. However, the treatment with KNO3 was the best compare with treatment by ZnSO4. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: It can be concluded from this study that using invigoration solutions led to improve germination and vigour of barley seeds for all the seed storage.</p> Rabha buhwish Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Cytological and Chemical Changes of Some Varieties of Potato Tissues (Solnum tubersum L.) under Salt Stress. <p><em>In vitro</em> culture can provide a controlled and uniform system for studying the morphological and chemical effects of salt stress at the tissue development level. Explants cultured under a biotic stresses such as salinity has been examined through morphological and chemical analyses. This has led to much information through studies of plants subjected to salt treatments. The aim of the work reported in this study, was to evaluate two varieties of Potato (Spunta and Agria) for their competence for Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Within the (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mmol) tolerance and tissues developments. Data reported in this study are summarized as follows.</p> <p>Increase salinity levels in MS medium to a decrease the number of leaves, number of branches and plant length of each explant. Plantlets established from two varieties potato and developed on MS medium supplemented with NaCl proved to be tolerant to and 80 mmol NaCl, in addition to the control treatment.</p> Ghada Elrgaihy, Adel Elmaghrabi, Huda Abugnia, Said Abojreeda, Elmundr Abughnia Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and Yield of Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) as influenced by different sowing dates <p>Pot experiment involving three sowing dates was conducted for studying the response of triticale (× <em>Triticosecale Wittmack</em>) to sowing dates. Triticale grains were sown at three different times October 15, November 15, and December 15. The current outcomes revealed that there is a significant difference between sowing dates on plant growth and yield attributes. The most effective in this regard was 15<sup>th</sup> October followed by 15<sup>th</sup> November and then 15<sup>th</sup> December. The greatest values of plant height (95.5 cm), flag leaf area (37.5 cm<sup>2</sup>), tiller number plant<sup>-1</sup> (9.5 tillers), spike length (18.5 cm), grain number spike<sup>-1</sup> and spike weight (3.8 g), were recorded within the 1<sup>st</sup> sowing date (15<sup>th</sup> October). Additionly, the lowest values of grains and biological yield was recorded under the 3<sup>rd</sup> sowing date (Dec 15). It is concluded from this study that the best date for triticale sowing falls within the period between late October and the middle of November.</p> Amal Ehtaiwesh, Munira Emsahel Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effects of indole butyric acid and seaweed (Posidonia oceanic) and their mixture in improving photosynthetic pigments of salt-stressed wheat cultivar (Marjawi). <p>Salt stress is one of the most limiting factors in the production of agricultural crops. This study was conducted to test the effect of different salinity levels at concentrations (0.0, 100, 200, and 300 mM) of sodium chloride on the photosynthetic pigments content of <em>Triticum</em> <em>aestivum</em> (Marjawi cultivar), and attempting to treat using several transactions of different treatments, include: spraying at 100 mg/L of Indole3- Butyric Acid (seedlings 2 weeks old), adding crude powder of seaweed <em>Posidonia oceanica</em> 25 g/pot (before agriculture), and (mixture) of a crude powder of <em>P.oceanic</em> 25 g/pot + spraying IBA, with three replications according to a completely randomized design. The results showed a significant decrease in the content of chlorophyll (a, b), carotenoids, and Total pigments with increasing NaCl concentrations, compared to a control. Moreover, spraying with (IBA) decrease significantly the negative effect of salinity. Also result indicated that adding crude powder of <em>P.oceanica</em> was not successful in reducing salt stress, in addition, the result showed that the mixture was superior in recording the best rates in improving the photosynthetic pigments content of wheat salt-stressed, This study concluded that harmful effects of salinity can be mitigated using the mixed treatment.</p> sami salih, Ahmed Amrajaa Abdulrraziq Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Phytoremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Maize (Zea mays) and Sunflower (Helianthus Annus) <p>Recent studies on Phytoremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil gave positive results in both efficiency and cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Maize (<em>Zea mays</em>), Sunflower (<em>Helianthus Annus</em>) in the biodegradation of total hydrocarbons of soils contaminated with crude oil. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of The Libyan Center for Biotechnology Research (Tripoli, Libya) to test the ability of the selective plants in stimulating the microbial decomposition of soil pollutants - particularly Crude Oil- decreasing or eliminate these pollutants. The experiment was designed according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), and the selective plants were (maize and sunflower) planted in pots containing soil treated with different crude oil concentrations (0%, 1.25%, 2.50%, 3.75%, and 5% w/w) for 90 days to test and compare the ability of the studied plants in reducing the pollution in the presence of microbial activity. By the treatment of 3.75% (37,500 ppm) crude oil concentration, the total hydrocarbon concentration decreased to 86.10 ppm by maize and to 77.47 ppm by sunflower, while, by the control of treatment was 188.48 ppm. The total number of the aerobic bacteria at the end of the experiment didn’t show significant differences in comparison to zero time except for the 5% pollution treatment by which the total number was 313.23x104 CFU by maize, 164.92x104 CFU by sunflower and 2200.17x104 CFU by the control treatment.</p> Farag Abu Drehiba, Abubaker Edkymish, Abdurrazzaq Braydan, Otman Ermithi, Mohamed Mukhtar, Elmundr Abughnia Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and copper sulphate (CuSO4) on callus formation and plant regeneration from tow pepper varieties (Chile Ancho and Misraty) in vitro <p>This study was conducted at the Libyan center for biotechnology research laboratories in order to study the effect of different concentrations of silver nitrate and copper sulfate on the callus formation and plant regeneration of two varieties of pepper plant (Misraty and Chile Ancho). Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added at a concentration of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 µM/L /L in the culture media, while copper sulphate (CuSO4) was added at concentrations of 0.1 (concentration of copper sulfate in MS standard medium), 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 µM/L with presence of 17.8 µM/L of Kin and 1.7 µM/L of NAA. The results indicated that adding silver nitrate to the culture medium did not have a positive effect on the rate of callus formation, while it increased the number of plant growths, especially at a concentration of 30 µM/L .As for copper sulfate, the results showed that, for the plant growth parameter there were no significant differences among the treatments of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 µM/L compared to the control treatment in Chile Ancho variety, while the number of seedlings and leaves of the obtained plants improved by increasing the concentration of copper sulfate to record the best average of 4.5 and 7.2, respectively, at a concentration of 3 µM/L . Furthermore for the Misraty variety, the results proved that addition of copper sulfate did not have a positive effect on the rate of callus formation, but it effectively affected the plant growth parameter the percentage of plant growth increased from 15% in the control treatment to 45% in treatment of 3 µM/L. The results showed also that the number of leaves increased by increasing the concentration of copper sulfate by recording average of 7.5 leaves at the treatment of 3 µM/L.</p> Noaman Enfeshi, Elshaybani Abdulali, Mustafa Salama, Zaineb Geath, Ahmed Shaaban, Zuhear Ben saad, Elmundr Abughnia Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Medicinal Activity of Four Imported Trees to Libya Against Some Pathogens. <p>Many imported trees have been included in Libyan Flora data Base, but not all of its Bio-activity was studied, especially medical in a new environment. Therefore, this work was carried out to Investigate the medicinal activity of four imported trees (<em>Acaciasaligna</em>, <em>Acacia nilotica</em>, <em>Brachychiton populneus</em> and <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em>), and evaluate the activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves at a concentration 200mg/ml against four various types of human pathogenic bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>), and Plant-pathogenic fungi (<em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Botrytis cinerea</em>, <em>Rhizopus microsporus</em> and <em>Fusarium solani</em>). The antibacterial activity was determined by disk diffusion, and the antifungal activity by poisoned food technique. The results showed the inefficiency of all imported trees leaves extracts against all bacteria types, while, was have good activity against most plant-pathogenic fungi tested, Commonly, <em>R.microsporus</em> was the most affected fungus for all the extracts tested, also, the results showed that <em>L.leuceana</em> extract is more effective as an antifungal than other extracts. Data in this study indicated the potential of using Imported trees as an environmentally friendly Fungicide.</p> Amani Emraja, Sami Mohammed Salih, Ahmed Amrajaa Abdulrraziq Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of three Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) against some microorganisms <p>Three <em>Silene</em> species (<em>Silene gallical L., Silene succulent Forsk., and Silene apetala</em> Willd) were tested for potential anti-microbial activity against some microorganisms (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Serratia marcescens</em>, <em>Acinetobacter boumannii</em>, <em>Klebsella sp.</em>, <em>Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger</em>,<em> Cladosporium cladosporioides</em>, and <em>Alternaria alternata</em> using the well diffusion assay. Solvents used in the extraction process are ethanol, methanol and acetone. The obtained results from all plant extracts showed clear antimicrobial activity against all tested microbial species, except <em>S. succulent</em> extracts, which had no inhibitory activity against <em>Klebsiella sp.</em>, <em>A. niger</em> and <em>A. flavus</em>. Moreover, the acetone extract of<em> S. gallical</em> and <em>S. apetala</em> was the most effective plant extract and showed bacteriostatic, bactericidal, fungistatic and fungicidal activities against the highly susceptible species of microbes (<em>S. aureus</em>, <em>S. marcescens</em>, <em>C. cladosporioides</em>, and <em>A. alternata</em>) with MIC ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/ml, MBC and MFC of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. The experiments confirmed the efficacy of selected plant extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggested that they could be used in drugs to treat infectious diseases caused by the tested microbes. </p> Miloud Elagaily, Najma A. Senussi Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mobile Phones as a Source of Bacterial Infection <p><strong>Background:</strong> The wide spread of mobile phones in recent years inevitably raises the question of whether they are an exogenous source of infections.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> A cross-sectional study was carried out among some teachers, educational staff, doctors, and nurses selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. 100 samples were collected from some teachers, educational staff, doctors, and nurses in some hospitals in Benghazi.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The organisms sequentially isolated in this study, based on colonial, morphological, and biochemical characteristics, were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (58%), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (12%), <em>Corynebacterium urealyticum</em> (6%), <em>Bacillus</em> <em>cereus </em>(5%), <em>Tatumella ptyseos</em> (3%), <em>Leuconostoc lactis</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, All isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. This revealed that mobile phones may have a notable role in the transmission of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study showed microbial contamination on personal mobile phones and hands. Some of the contaminated mobile phone microorganisms (such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>) were epidemiologically important nosocomial drug-resistant pathogens. These isolates of bacteria were resistant to commonly used antimicrobials such as amoxicillin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. These results showed that mobile phones and personal's hands were contaminated with various types of bacteria, which suggested that mobile phones (used by people in daily practice) may be a source of nosocomial infections.</p> Najla Najm, Fauzia Garabulli Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of bacterial species causing urinary tract infections in various parts of Libya's Brega city region, isolation, identification, and antibiotic sensitivity testing. <p>The purpose of the study is to ascertain the prevalence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that cause urinary tract infections in patients in Brega of various Libyan ages. Inpatients and outpatients at Brega Qarawi Hospital (third zone), Family Clinic (first zone), and Industrialized Clinic (first zone) provided 500 mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens. These people ranged in age from 15 to 65 and included 285 men and 215 women.</p> <p>According to this study, UTI was 45% common in Brega City, with males having a higher frequency than females (46% vs. 44%). Adults (72.4%) were the age group most likely to have UTIs, followed by the elderly (16.4%) and teenagers (11.1%). The majority of those with UTI were outpatients (62.2%) and inpatients (37.7%). With 49.7% of infections caused by it, <em>Escherichia coli</em> was the most prevalent uropathogen. <em>Pseudomonas aerogenosa</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> were each in charge of 10.2% and 20.8% of the cases, respectively. UTIs were less commonly caused by the gram-positive bacteria <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (5.3%) and <em>Staphylococcus saprophylticus</em> (2.6%). With the highest sensitivity of the antibiotics examined in this study, Imipenem is the one to use.</p> Mifthah Sead. Najem, Suliman. Fathi. Alsdig , Youssef. F.Lawgali Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Ground Water Quality for Drinking Purposes in Sabratha, Libya <p>The Water Quality Index reduces the large number of indicators used in the assessment to a simpler mathematical expression allowing easy interpretation of the monitoring data. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI (CCMEWQI) and the Weighted Arithmetic WQI (WAWQI) were used to assess the groundwater quality for drinking purposes in Sabratha City. Ten samples were collected from different sites in the study area. Eleven significant parameters were considered for calculating the WQI such as; pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca<sup>++</sup>), magnesium (Mg<sup>++</sup>), sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>), potassium (K<sup>+</sup>), Chloride (Cl<sup>-</sup>), bicarbonate (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>), Sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>--</sup>), nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) and Total Hardness (HD). The drink water quality analysis by CCMEWQI and WAWQI shows that more than 60% of the samples described the groundwater quality in the study area as poor to unsuitable and can't be used for drinking propose, only 20% of the samples were classified as suitable for direct consumption</p> Wafa Aldeeb, Bashir M. Aldabusi Copyright (c) 2023 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000