Mycoflora Associated with Barely Grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the Eastern Parts of Libya


  • Marei Abdullah Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.



barley; seed mycoflora, fungal frequency; fungal relative abundance, and isolation frequency.


During the harvest season (2019-2020), local variety of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.) were collected from three different locations, Almerj, Gerdina, and Sultan; situated in the eastern part of Libya. The present experiment was performed to identify, and compare natural mycoflora associated with barley seeds among these locations, also to evaluate sodium hypochlorite’s application, as seed disinfectants against fungal contaminators. Barley seeds were surface disinfected with a 4% sodium hypochlorite for two minutes or washed only with deionized water (control) before plating on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The following parameters were recorded and calculated: seed survival (G %), fungal frequency (F), isolation frequency (IF) and fungal relative abundance (RD). Four fungal species were identified as Aspergillus niger van Tiegh, A. flavus Link (ascomycetes), Rhizopus stolonifera (Ehrenb. :Fr.) Vuill (zygomycetes), and Bipolaris australiensis (Bugnicourt) (ascomycetes). The most predominant recovered species was A. niger followed by B. australiensis, R. stolonifera, and A. flavus, (18.5%), (9.67%) (2.84%), (4.65%), respectively. Results also showed Sultan had the highest seed germination, followed by Almerj and Gerdina, 64.5 %, 44.5%, and 20.5 %, respectively. Moreover, seed’s pretreatment with sodium hypochlorite and seed’s origin had no significant effect on frequency and relative abundance of fungi.


Abduhu, M., Khan, A.A., Mian, I.H., Mian, M.A.K., & Alam, M.Z. (2018). Effect of seed treatment with sodium hypochlorite and hot water on seed-borne fungi and germination of okra seed. Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture, 22(2). 41-50.

Adhikari, P., Khatri-Chhetri, G.B & Shrestha, S. M. (2016). Study of prevalence of mycoflora in wheat seeds. Turkish Journal of Agriculture – Food Science and Technology;4(1):31–35.

Blumenthal, C.Z. (2004). Production of toxic metabolites in Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, and Trichoderma reesei: justification of mycotoxin testing in food grade enzyme preparations derived from the three fungi. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP, 39(2), 214–228.

Dugan, M.F. (2006). The Identification of Fungi: An Illustrated Introduction With key, Glossary and Guide to Literature. The American Phytopathological Society.

Elham, S.D., & Modhi, K.E.( 2015). Mycoflora Of Barley ( Hordeum Vulgare L.) At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research,volume 4, issue 05.

Elbeydi, K.R., Aljdi, A.A.,& Yousef, A.A. (2007). Measuring the Supply Response Function of Barley in Libya. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 80, 1277-1280.

Fakhrunnisa, M.H.& Ghaffar, A.( 2006). Seed-borne mycoflora of wheat, sorghum and barley. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38(1), pp.185-192.

Hashem, A.R. (1990). Fungal Flora of Barley Seeds in Saudi Arabia and Its Control. Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 53, No. 9, Pages 786-789.

Jedidi, I., Soldevilla, C., Lahouar, A., Marín, P., González-Jaén, M. T., & Said, S. (2018). Mycoflora isolation and molecular characterization of Aspergillus and Fusarium species in Tunisian cereals. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 25(5), 868–874.

ISTA.(2010). International Rules for Seed Testing. International Seed Testing Association. Annexe to Chapter,7Seed Health Testing Methods.

Marasas, W.F.O., Burgess, L.W. , Anelich, R.Y., Lamprecht, S.C., & van Schalkwyk, D.J. (1988). Survey of Fusarium species associated with plant debris in South African soils. South African Journal of Botany, 54 , pp. 63-71;.

Maryam, A.S.A.(2017). Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Cereal Grains in Libya. International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology,Vol. 1, No. 1,pp. 9-12.

Mateo, E.M., Gil-Serna, J., Patiño, B., & Jiménez, M. (2011). Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 149(2), 118–126.

Navi, S.S., Bandyopadhyay, R., Hall A.J., & Bramel-Cox, P.J. (1999). Pictorial Guide for the Identification of Mold Fungi on Sorghum Grain. Information Bulletin no. 59 (In En. Summaries in En, Fr). Patancheru , Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 118 pp.

Ramadan, Nadeem & Zrary, Taha. (2013). Isolation, Identification and Pathogenicity of Seed borne fungi of some barley cultivars. Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani, Part A. 16. 55-64.

R Core Team. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL

Robinson, M. (2011). Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed fungi: Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species ( 3rd ed.), Reference Review, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 43-44.

Sarma, U.P., Bhetaria, P.J., Devi, P., &Varma, A.(2017). Aflatoxins: Implications on Health. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry : IJCB, 32(2), 124–133.

Wickham, H. (2016). Ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag New York.

Williams, J.H., Phillips, T.D., Jolly, P.E., Stiles J.K., Jolly, C.M.,& Aggarwal, D. (2004). Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: A review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80 (5):1106-1122.




How to Cite

Abdullah, M. (2022). Mycoflora Associated with Barely Grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the Eastern Parts of Libya. Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University, 2(2), 80–85.