Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University <p>The Scientific Journal for the Faculty of Science-Sirte University (SJFSSU, henceforth) is a bi-annual peer-reviewed and open accessed journal issued electronically by the faculty of science at Sirte University. The SJFSSU aims to encourage research in the scientific community and publish papers reporting original work that are of high standards and contribute to the development of knowledge in all fields of applied and pure (theoretical) science, namely mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, zoology, botany, microbiology, astronomy, computer science, information technology, geology, environment science and oceanography.</p> Faculty of Science-Sirte University en-US Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University 2789-858X Measuring the Content of 16 PAH in Plant (potato) from Bradford in the UK <p>The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) concentrations in a sample of potatoes from Bradford, this objective will be achieved by solvent extraction and analysis of potato samples using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The potato samples were collected from four sites in the city of the Bradford-middle north of the United Kingdom. The exact location of each sample was recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS). In site 1 the average concentration of Benzo[b]fluoranthene was (9.82 ng/g). This compound had the highest concentrations level of the 16 PAHs in all sites, while the average (1.023 ng/g) in site 2 of the compound with the low-value Pyrene. The total concentration of 16 PAHs range was between 50.87 -78.31 ng/g.</p> Heiam Hamed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 28 32 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.78 Generating Matrices of Rotations in Minkowski Spaces using the Lie Derivative <p>This paper aims to generate materices of rotations in Minkowski using the Lie Derivative. The calculus on manifolds in Lorentzian spaces are used to generate matrices of rotation in three-dimensional Lorentz-Minkowski space which includes one axis in timelike and the other two are spacelike axes. The findings showed that the manifolds and their calculus dramatically increased the use of Lie derivative in many branches of mathematics and physics, The findings also revealed that &nbsp;matrices ( of rotation) leave one line ( axis) fixed and these matrices of rotation are used widely in differential geometry in physics. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that any surfaces of revolution inside this space must be invariant under one of these matrices.&nbsp; The main result of this paper is a new procedure of creating rotational matrices explicitly using the Lie derivative and deriving it into a linear system of ordinary differential equaion. Solving this system leads to matrices of rotation that leaves one axis fixed in&nbsp; Minkowski space.</p> Anis Saad Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 86 90 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.90 Micropropagation of Paulownia elongata tree through Plant Tissue Culture Technology <p>The study was carried out at biotechnology research center laboratories for the purpose of Micropropagation of<em> Paulownia elongata</em> tree by using plant tissue culture technique for the purpose of identifying the best plant Micropropagation conditions. The plants were sterilized superficially by immersing them in the Clorox solution, then the sterilized plants were cultured in MS media supplemented with several concentrations of&nbsp; (BA and Kinetin) for the purpose of obtaining the best vegetative growths. Obtained plants were also cultured in MS media supplemented with different concentrations of&nbsp; (IBA and NAA) for the purpose of obtaining the best root growth. Finally plants were moved for the adaptation stage. The results indicated that single-nods cultured in (MS) media supplemented with a concentration of 2 and 2.5 mg / L of (BA) growth regulator resulted in good vegetative growth represented in the number of leaves, while the best treatment of branches growth was using 2 mg / L concentration of the Kinetin (K) growth regulator but For the length of the plant, the treatment of the control achieved the best results. For the root site, the results showed that the culture media (MS) plus 0.2 mg / L of the growth regulator (NAA) resulted in the best root growth. As for the adaptation, the results showed that 85% of the plants could be adapted to the sterile environment of soil with 1: 1 size / volume before transferring them to the greenhouse.</p> Ahmed Shaaban Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 73 79 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.86 Mycoflora Associated with Barely Grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the Eastern Parts of Libya <p>During the harvest season (2019-2020), local variety of barley seeds (<em>Hordeum vulgare</em> L.) were collected from three different locations, Almerj, Gerdina, and Sultan; situated in the eastern part of Libya. The present experiment was performed to identify, and compare natural mycoflora associated with barley seeds among these locations, also to evaluate sodium hypochlorite’s application, as seed disinfectants against fungal contaminators. Barley seeds were surface disinfected with a 4% sodium hypochlorite for two minutes or washed only with deionized water (control) before plating on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The following parameters were recorded and calculated: seed survival (G %), fungal frequency (F), isolation frequency (IF) and fungal relative abundance (RD). Four fungal species were identified as <em>Aspergillus niger </em>van Tiegh<em>, A</em>. <em>flavus </em>Link (ascomycetes)<em>, Rhizopus stolonifera</em> (Ehrenb. :Fr.) Vuill (zygomycetes)<em>, </em>and<em> Bipolaris australiensis </em>(Bugnicourt) (ascomycetes)<em>. </em>The most predominant recovered species was <em>A</em>.<em> niger</em> followed by <em>B</em>. <em>australiensis</em>, <em>R</em>.<em> stolonifera</em>, and <em>A</em>. <em>flavus</em>, (18.5%), (9.67%) (2.84%), (4.65%), respectively. Results also showed Sultan had the highest seed germination, followed by Almerj and Gerdina, 64.5 %, 44.5%, and 20.5 %, respectively. Moreover, seed’s pretreatment with sodium hypochlorite and seed’s origin had no significant effect on frequency and relative abundance of fungi.</p> Marei Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 80 85 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.88 Mode of Formation of the Coastal Sabkha Sediments in the Coastal Plain of Al-Dafna Plateau <p>Two types of sabkhas are distinguished in the study of coastal area; the first type was developed at the mouths of wadis where sea water enters the wadis through high tides; these include; Omm El-Shawesh, Wadi Al-Ain sabkha and Wadi Rizk sabkha. A generalized hydrodynamic model for the formation of this type of sabkha was constructed. The second type of sabkha is stretching behind the dunes, and is divided into a longitudinal strip from east to west where saline crusts appear in some parts and approach the groundwater level. These sabkhas are subjected to flooding during the winter and plant grows within this sabkha. Behind the shore sand hummocks, sea water enters the sabkhas area by seepage and mix with groundwater, and then rises upward to the surface through capillary action and evaporats. This type of sabkha include; Alaqila, Omm Rukbah and Wadi Al-Sawani. The generalized hydrodynamic model suggested for the formation of this kind of sabkha was constructed too.</p> Ahmed Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 33 37 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.79 Petrophysical Charaterizations of Some Reservoir Formations in Ghani Oilfield, Libya <p>This study has been conducted on three types of reservoir rocks for core analysis of&nbsp; samples denoted by R-1, R-2 and R-3 of Ghani oil field from three reservoir include Farrud, Facha and Mabruk formations respectively. This analysis includes determination of physical characteristics e. g. porosity ( ), permeability (k), formation factor (FF) and resistivity index (RI). The purpose of this study is to how core petrophysical data might be most investigating effectively applied to the petrophysical prediction of petrophysical properties from core samples analysis. For Farrud reservoir of R-1 shows that the relation between degree of saturation ( ) and relative oil permeability(K<sub>ro</sub>) equal the relative permeability of water(K<sub>rw</sub>) at which the&nbsp; intersection point between the two curves ; whereas, the flow with the same rate. FF and RI are vary with &nbsp;and the RI is a function of . The gas-oil relative permeability have been expressed graphically. Whereas, the intersection point between the two curves (K<sub>ro</sub>) equal the (K<sub>rg</sub>), at which both oil and gas are flow with the same rate. A similar results were obtained from Facha reservoir, R-2. The petrophysical properties of core samples for R-3 of Mabruk Formation have been performed including , k, and . The comparison between the three reservoirs by correlation between the average values such as , k, grain density and RI; shows that the average of Mabruk reservoir k greater than the other two reservoirs, while the other properties seem to be close together.</p> Ibrahim Abou El Leil Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 46 61 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.82 Anticancer Screening of Quercetin as a Natural Treatment <p>Oxidation stress is a process that damages the cells of the body, and also leads to the happen of many diseases such as cancer. This disease is known among all ages in every part of the world. In cancer cells, increasing types of free radicals flaw the balance in the cell and thus increasing free radicals target all types of molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. If the body cannot produce enough antioxidants, increasing free radicals damage the cells of the body. The defect in apoptosis also prevents malignant cells from being damaged. This paper aims to study the effect and activity of quercetin as an antioxidant and anticancer drug in vitro. The mechanism of increasing free radical formation causing cell damage will be explained. This study also presents a discussion about the mechanism of apoptosis pathways using the MTT scale to measure the cell's ability to metabolic activity and whether the cells are still alive. The most significant shifts were for (Raji, MOLT-4 and CT-26 equal to 0.18 ± 0.09, 2.1 ± 0.9, and 5.5 ± 0.38, respectively. Apoptosis was detected using the BD Annexin V FITC assay and apoptosis was measured at (P &lt; 0.001). Also, in vivo, the positive effects of different doses of quercetin on affected models are discussed.</p> Wedad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 19 27 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.77 The Fundamental Role of Neuroinflammation at the Beginning and Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease <p>The majority of astrocytes are responsible for the expression and release of S100B, a 21-kDa calcium-binding protein of the EFhand type (helix E-loop-helix F). It is mostly present in the neurological system and, depending on concentration, has different (beneficial, detrimental) effects on neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. an effect on the survival and development of both glia and neuronal cells. Patients with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have brains that are overexpressed with the S100 protein Down Syndrome (DS). Increased S100B concentrations are linked to brain trauma and ischemia, most likely due to astrocyte destruction. As S100B appears to influence multiple neuropathological mechanisms in (AD) , a pivotal role for S100B as a significant contributor to (AD) pathology has emerged.</p> <p>Studies of S100B overexpression, S100B localization, multiple relationships between S100B and increase amyloid precursor protein, the&nbsp;interaction between S100B and dystrophic neuritis plaques, and change in a&nbsp;neurofibrillary tangle in Alzheimer's disease focus on providing evidence for the involvement of S100B in Alzheimer's disease pathology and neuronal loss. The significance of S100B in head trauma and degenerative brain disease is the central subject of this review. Overexpressing s100B, which also causes more astrogliosis and microgliosis, speeds up the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Numerous clinical problems have been associated with an increase in S100B, a neurotropic signaling&nbsp;protein.</p> Yousef Sawikr Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 91 98 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.91 Biochemical Study on the Kinetic Properties of the Invertase Produced by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Invertases are enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose to&nbsp;&nbsp; produce an equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose, which is of interest for various industrial applications. The present study aimed to produce invertase by <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> isolated from Baker’s yeast and grape samples using the standardize technique. The enzyme activity was characterized with some parameters like pH, temperature, metal ions, kinetic parameters and inhibitors (fructose, glucose and copper (II) sulfate). Spectrophotometric methods were used to study enzyme kinetics and to determine the factors affecting enzyme activity. The optimum activity was recorded at 55˚C for both invertases. The optimum activity was at pH 6.0 for Baker’s yeast invertase and at pH 10 for grape invertase. From Lineweaver-Burk Plot, V<sub>max</sub> was found to be 24.39 ± 2.44 nmol/min/mg protein and the K<sub>m </sub>approximately 0.860 ± 0.04 mM for Baker's yeast invertase but in case of grape invertase, V<sub>max</sub> was 23.25 ± 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein and the K<sub>m</sub> approximately1.243 ± 0.07 mM. Enzyme activity was increased in the presence of 5 mM Ca<sup>+2</sup> ions for Baker’s yeast, whereas showed the maximum activity at 5 mM Mg<sup>+2</sup> ions in case of grape fruit invertase. Using sucrose as substrate, the K<sub>cat</sub>, K<sub>cat</sub>/K<sub>m</sub> and Ks values were 0.28 ± 0.02 min<sup>-1</sup>, 0.325 ± 0.03 mM<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup> and 27.03 ± 5.24 ml/min/mg protein for Baker’s yeast invertase activity, whereas were 0.56 ± 0.008 min<sup>-1</sup>, 0.045 ± 0.003 mM<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup> and 24.39 ± 7.11 ml/min/mg protein for grape invertase values. In conclusion, the <em>S. cerevisiae</em> isolated from grape fruits was more potent for invertase production in comparable with that isolated from Baker’s yeast.</p> Khaled Al salhen Copyright (c) 2022 2011-10-27 2011-10-27 2 2 1 11 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.75 Statistical Study of Extract Keratin Protein from Waste Chicken Feather Based on Response Surface Methodology <p>The feathers contain a significant amount of keratin protein, which is used in cosmetics, shampoos, hair treatment creams, and skin creams. Dissolving chicken feathers with reducing agent and then separating the protein from chemicals are the key steps involved. However, in order to enhance the amount of recovered keratin as much as possible, the best conditions for extracting keratin from chicken feathers are required. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in order to simulate and optimize the operating parameters for extracting keratin from waste chicken feathers in order to increase the amount of keratin protein compared to previous studies. Dissolving chicken feathers using sodium sulphide as a reducing agent at various periods, temperatures, and concentrations is the first step in the fundamental technique. After the feathers have been dissolved with a reducing agent, the fluid is treated with an ammonium sulfate solution to precipitate the protein. As determined by a biuret test and UV-Vis analysis, the keratin protein had a maximum wavelength of 290 nm. Finally, the statistical optimization of the extraction conditions provided a better understanding of the reaction parameters. The optimum yield of keratin was achieved at 3.7 hours at 30.07°C with 0.05 M sodium sulfide.</p> Dalal Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 12 18 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.76 Muco-adhesion Evaluation of Polysaccharides in Simulated Physiological Fluids <p>Gellan gum is a microbial exopolysaccharide, water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact of physiological fluids on both the physical and chemical properties of gellan gum, and to understand the role of polymers gel in muco-adhesion and drug delivery to prolong the residence time of the drug inside the body. Muco-adhesion measurements of retention time were performed using bespoke retention apparatus to determine the retention of labelled gellan gum dose. The physiological fluids used in this work are artificial gastric juice, artificial saliva fluid, and artificial tears fluid. Results of this work show that in general the viscosity of gellan increased with high concentration and the gel formation is strong with artificial gastric juice (HCL) and weak gel formation with artificial saliva and tears but the retention time is longer with saliva and tears than with artificial gastric juice.</p> Hana Binhamad Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 38 45 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.80 Effect of Active Compounds for Quercus Fruit on Some Biochemical Parameters and Tissue Aorta in Induced Atherosclerosis Rats <p>This research included extractions of the active compounds from <em>Quercus</em> fruit, the identification of active compounds extract by using the capillary gas chromatography technique CGC and with high-performance liquid chromatography technology HPLC. The active dose of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg) was studied in animals after induced arteriosclerosis with cholesterol (500mg/kg) dissolved in coconut oil for two weeks. The effect of the extracts oil, poly phenols, and at 7, 37.5, and 10 mg/kg respectively were studied also. The results showed a significant (P≤0.05) increase in catalase activity and the level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), However, there was a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the high plasma kallikrein, caspase-3, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C in induced atherosclerosis rats treated with all extracts compared with affected control with the active extracts (oil, poly phenols) during the first and second week. The tissue aorta examination in the group of animals treated with the active extracts (aqueous, oily, flavonoid) after two weeks of the treatment showed that large parts of the tissues of the aorta were healed close to the normal state compared to the group of animals induced with atherosclerosis untreated whose tissues contained on thickenings and foam cells.</p> Intisar Taha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-27 2022-10-27 2 2 62 72 10.37375/sjfssu.v2i2.84