Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu <p>The Scientific Journal for the Faculty of Science-Sirte University (SJFSSU, henceforth) is a bi-annual peer-reviewed and open accessed journal issued electronically by the faculty of science at Sirte University. The SJFSSU aims to encourage research in the scientific community and publish papers reporting original work that are of high standards and contribute to the development of knowledge in all fields of applied and pure (theoretical) science, namely mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, zoology, botany, microbiology, astronomy, computer science, information technology, geology, environment science and oceanography.</p> Faculty of Science-Sirte University en-US Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University 2789-858X Comparative Study of Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Renal Failure Depending on Gender http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2642 <p>The research aimed to evaluate the hematological and biochemical parameters in patients with kidney failure who are being treated at the nephrology department. This study was performed on 100 samples (50 males and 50 females) of patients who attended the nephrology department at Ibn Sina University Hospital. The survey of these samples was carried out among patients attending from January to May 2023. This study depended on the analysis of individual samples obtained from patient records, expressed as complete blood count (CBC) as well as biochemical changes in kidney function. It was found that most patients suffered from a decrease in hemoglobin, WBCs, and RBC levels. According to the obtained results in this study, we found a significant decrease in the concentrations of hemoglobin, platelets, and leukocytes in both genders, while we found a significant increase in the concentrations of urea and creatinine. The results revealed no decline in potassium ions in patients, but sodium ions slightly decreased somewhat in males alone and not in females.</p> Fawziya B. Marie Fathia A. Mosa Mabrouka B. Abdullah Samah A. Abdul Sondos S. Naji Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 117 123 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2642 On Some of Classes of p- Valent, β- Uniformly Functions http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/1671 <p>We focus on the properties of some famous analytical functions. We introduce the classes of of <em>p</em>-Valent β-uniformly Starlike functions of order α and <em>p</em> -Valent β-uniformly Convex functions of order α.` We come out with new characterization theorems and closure theorems for functions belonging to these classes. Also, we gained radius of p -Valent convexity for functions belonging to the class p-Valent β-uniformly Convex functions of order α. We insert some notes to explain the evidence of our work.</p> <p>In this present paper, we are concerned with the properties of some famous analytical functions. We introduce and study the classes of <em>p</em>-Valent β-uniformly Starlike functions of order α and <em>p</em> -Valent β-uniformly Convex functions of order α and obtain some characterization theorems and closure theorems for functions belonging to these classes. Also, by this study we come out with many necessary and sufficient characterization conditions. Also we obtain radius of <em>p</em> -Valent convexity for functions belonging to the class <em>p</em>-Valent β-uniformly Convex functions of order α. In last, a remark is listed to show the evidence of the new theorems.</p> Aisha. A Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 45 49 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.1671 Iterative Processes Methods for Solving Boundary Value Problem for the Caputo Fractional Differential Equations http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2598 <p>In this article, we introduce a study of approximate solutions for the Caputo fractional differential equations with boundary conditions in Banach space. We transformed given equations into equivalent integral equations for constructing of contraction mapping and other compact mapping, both of which allow for the proof of the existence solution. The ultimate goal of this study is to present a comparison of the speed convergence of the approximate solutions of Caputo Fractional differential equations obtained by using the processes repetitiveness of the Picard, Mann, Picard-Mann hybrid, Picard -Krasnoselskii hybrid, and Ishikawa methods to the general solutions</p> Mufeedah Maamar Salih Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 68 74 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2598 Testing of vertical movements and neotectonics by using alluvial terraces: study from Wadi Al Kuf, Al Watiyat Region, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, NE Libya http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/1805 <p>Through different periods of the geological era, the Al Jabal Akhdar region has faced a number of tectonic events, which mainly had an effect on the geomorphic features of the earth's surface. One of the most notable wadies located on the lower escarpment is Wadi Al Kuf. &nbsp;Alluvial terraces are dispersed throughout this wadi in various locations and regions. &nbsp;&nbsp;These terraces are revealed with an obvious variation in altitude, with some being higher while others abruptly dropped off in levels like behavior, where an a series of terraces and surfaces formed both underneath and above the escarpment. &nbsp;Possibly, Wadi Al Kuf alluvial terraces have been assigned and interpreted as alluvial terraces of a neotectonic impact, and supported to the effects of one of these tectonic eras since the alluvial terraces are clarified of non-natural and abnormally arranged. &nbsp;&nbsp;Wadi Al Kuf can be classified as a member of the morphotectonic valley in the Al Jabal Al Akhdar area due to terraces altitudes fluctuation.&nbsp; &nbsp;Most previous scientific publications on alluvial terraces in Al Jabal Akhdar, for example, Wadi Zazah, Sidi Moussa, and studies carried out by students of the Department of Earth Sciences during graduation projects on Wadi Al Mahboul, Wadi Al Nagar and Wadi Azzad revealed that these wadies are still tectonically active.&nbsp; &nbsp;Unfortunately, due to Storm Daniel, which struck part of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar&nbsp; Mountain from Al Marj in the west to Dernah in the east, it removed a large part of the alluvial terraces from the wadies in that area. &nbsp;Geologically, this storm created conditions similar to the devastating debris flow. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Farag M. EL Oshebi Fares F. Fares Hamza I. Altweel Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 09 17 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.1805 Bahr Essalam Gas Wells Production Evaluation using Theoretical Method http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/1907 <p>The production flow phenomenon potential of the Bahr Essalam’s natural gas wells surveillance can be determined. However, it is one of the most important challenges for implemented operations to be accomplished at the location. On the other hand, the deliverability test application is a reliable fundamental operation in order to evaluate the reservoir productive capability at the current reservoir conditions. Consequently, the flow-after-flow test has been implemented for three wells of XX-02, XX-14, and XX-15, the pseudo-gas potential and inflow performance relationship have been used to evaluate the test. Therefore, the collected information has been analyzed using theoretical method which is considered an accurate method for the natural gas production flow rate assessment. The data analysis demonstrated that the absolute open flow potentials (AOFP) which mathematically represent the maximum gas flow rate at bottom hole flowing pressure equal to atmospheric pressure for the wells of XX-02, XX-14, and XX-15 are 66.6, 68.97, and 74.5 MMscf/day respectively. Additionally, the prediction of gas production flow rate at bottom hole flowing pressure of 1000 psi for the wells is 63, 65, and 70 MMscf/day respectively. Moreover, the group of IPR curves that belong to three wells depicted no substantially significance change in the delivered gas at the given bottom hole flowing pressure of the reservoir, which provides an average gas flow rate of approximately 41 MM scf/day. In conclusion, the IPR curves are essential study to evaluate the wells capability to deliver the gas to the wells and the gas amount that may actually be delivered up to the separators.</p> Omar Kalifa Hammuda Aluhwal Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 30 35 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.1907 Assessing the Drinking Water Quality, and its Commercial Purification Units Efficiency Distributed in Alassaba Municipality- Libya http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2523 <p>The demand for drinking water is increasing daily due to the rising world population, alongside the leakage of water, overuse of groundwater, and occurrence of several pollution issues that led to reducing the quality of groundwater. Consequently, in most countries purifying water technologies have been used to obtain drinkable water. Nationally, Libyans use the purified water extensively in their daily needs. Accordingly, to ensure that our citizen utilize harmless water, the quality of the used water and the efficiency of purification units was assessed by analyzing several physical and chemical characteristics of purified water and raw water supplied to the purification units from some local wells and man-made river (MMR) using recommended standard methods. The study results showed that the quality of purified water is excellent, and the purification process reduced the pH, electro conductivity and the concentration of studied chemical properties significantly to values less than the optimum levels (OL) suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Libyan standards (LS) for drinking water. As a conclusion, the studied purified water may use in the daily needs of human with continuously analytical monitoring. </p> Salem Irhema Adel Almaprok S. Arhouma Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 50 58 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2523 Classifying the 1st Year Academic Performance of Nursing Students at Tobruk University via Data Mining with SQL and WEKA Tool http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2581 <p>Data mining is a tool that can identify hidden patterns affecting academic success. The objective of this research is to investigate and classify the academic performance of first-year nursing students at Tobruk University. This study concentrates on the preliminary stage of data preprocessing and data mining classification. The methodology to classify academic performance includes data acquisition and preprocessing stage using SQL commands to extract student data from the university database and undergo basic cleaning and transformation. Initial classification and data analysis followed using the preprocessed data, further refined by the WEKA data mining tool algorithms including BayesNet, NaiveBayes, JRIP, and J48. Results of the preliminary data distribution and initial classification show that J48 is the most accurate model creator using regular classification (88.6619) and attribute selector (97.8261). Relative to the other three algorithms, J48 also recorded the highest precision, recall, F1 measure, and the lowest error measurement. The recorded Kapa stat of J48 (0.7779 and 0.9599) also proves the significance of the classification result, interpreted as substantial to near-perfect reliability scores respectively, which BayesNet and JRIP also attained. The results reveal that Finals (final exam result) attribute is the biggest factor in determining the descriptive Rating of a student’s grade at the university. The created model can serve as a classifier for future test sets and may provide a foundation for further research and model development. Further modification will help discover what factors contribute to student success and what applicable interventions are needed to improve the academic achievement of students in the nursing program.</p> James Neil B Mendoza Dorothy Buhat-Mendoza Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 18 29 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2581 Efficient Removal of Methylene Blue Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using Various Charcoal Adsorbents: A Comparative Thermodynamic and Isotherm Study of Olive, Pine, and Commercial Activated Carbon http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2605 <p>In this study, the effectiveness of various types of charcoal, including pine, olive, and commercial activated carbon, as adsorbents for removing methylene blue dye from water is evaluated. The study was conducted by preparing aqueous solutions containing methylene blue dye and using the three types of charcoal as adsorbents. The main factors affecting the adsorption process were determined through laboratory experiments, which included varying temperature, contact time, pH, and the quantity of charcoal to optimize the dye removal process. Additionally, isotherm studies and thermodynamic analysis of the reaction were conducted. The results demonstrate the successful removal of methylene blue dye by all three types of charcoal, with maximum adsorption capacities of 346.02 mg/g, 283.28 mg/g, and 406.50 mg/g for commercial activated carbon, olive charcoal, and pine charcoal, respectively. The ΔH results indicate that the adsorption process for pine charcoal and activated carbon was physical, while it was chemical for olive charcoal. This research highlights the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the adsorption process using charcoal as a promising solution for reducing dye pollution in water sources, contributing to the development of sustainable water purification strategies.</p> Ezadeen Aboshaloa Nura Ageel khadeja Samoe Ahlam Albashini Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 01 08 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2605 Exploring the Chemical Components of Porcelain Tiles Commercially available in Benghazi City, Libya http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2606 <p>This study aimed to assess the chemical composition of porcelain tiles in terms of mass percentages. Samples of porcelain tiles were collected from various markets in Benghazi, Libya. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer was utilized to determine the chemical components of the tiles. The evaluation criteria for high-quality raw mineral materials included high representative oxide content, low impurity oxides, and low loss on ignition (LOI). Notably, a distinct variation in the chemical composition of porcelain tiles was observed. In general, two formulations were identified: one group consisted of tiles with high silica content, elevated levels of alumina and alkaline oxides, and low magnesium oxide (MgO); another group comprised tiles with low silica content, high MgO and alumina content, and relatively lower alkaline oxides. The results revealed the averaged mass percentages of various components in the porcelain tiles: silica (SiO<sub>2</sub>) showed a resistant characteristic to melting and shrinkage at 44.37%; alumina (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) played a role in polishing and grinding the tiles at 9.85%; lime (CaO) contributed to enhancing the tiles' resistance against heat and abrasion with a mass percentage of 7.26%; MgO served as a sintering aid at 0.40%; potassium oxide (K<sub>2</sub>O) improved heat resistance, abrasion resistance, and overall appearance of the tiles at 0.77%; sodium oxide (Na<sub>2</sub>O) was present at 0.61%; iron oxide (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) and titanium oxide (Ti<sub>2</sub>O) acted as colored impurities at 2.84% and 0.82%, respectively. Additionally, calcite (CaCO<sub>3</sub>) was identified at 11.68%, aiding in the melting and shrinkage process during heating by releasing CO<sub>2</sub>.</p> Maysson Mohammed Yaghi Khaled Muftah Elsherif Majdi Ali Abdulhadi Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 59 67 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2606 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Honey Samples from Al-Marj City in Libya Using White Method http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2572 <p>5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was determined as a parameter for honey quality for three Sidr honey samples from Al-Marj city in Libya. In this study, the spectrophotometric quantification of HMF in honey was performed using White method which is one of the most accurate and recommended official methods. The honey samples were obtained from three different farms that distribute honey to most of the retail centers across the city. The aim of this study was to determine HMF concentration in samples from this geographical region to provide some data for future studies. HMF can be considered one of the most important parameters for honey testing and its concentration can predict if heat was used in any stage of honey production. All samples showed normal HMF concentrations indicating good honey quality, good storage conditions, and no possible adulteration nor heating. The preparation of a full report for the honey quality in this region is recommended.</p> Amani Abdugadar Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 75 79 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2572 Application of Cloud Point in Spectrophotometric Determination of Drugs, Overview http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/1798 <p>The technique known as "cloud point extraction," or CPE, involves removing organic and inorganic compounds from chemical or biological systems using safe extractants such as non-ionic surfactants. These extractants have a tendency to separate out of the bulk solution and form clouds when heated to significant temperatures, and it is known that the surfactants in the mentioned technique have the ability to concentrate these materials. The CPE technique receives great attention because of the simplicity and speed of the method, and the extraction process is beneficial by improving the experimental conditions by adjusting the acidity function, temperature, type of electrolyte, extraction time, and surfactant concentration. The surfactant leads to the phase separation of the so-called surfactant-rich phase and the surfactant aqueous phase. The comparison of the maximum temperature with the critical temperature is called the cloud point temperature, which will be Then the substance to be analyzed is concentrated and the preconcentration factor is high. This article describes the applications of the CPE method in the determination of different drugs using different reactions and various reagents.</p> Lamya Sarsam Theia'a N. Al-Sabha Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 98 108 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.1798 Survey of plant species in Cyrene (campus apollo) Shahat AL-Jabal AL-Akhdar, Libya http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2637 <p>The main objective of this study was to survey plants on the campus of Apollo, located in the Shahat area. The vegetation sampling was carried out between November 2021 to May 2023 with several field trips to the study area, and make a preliminary list dealing with the floristic composition. 194 species belonging to 160 genera and 57 families were recorded, identified in the Herbarium and arranged using the Engler system. Pteridophyta were represented by one species one family, and 4 species 3 families of Gymnosperms, while the remaining 53 families belong to Angiosperms, Dicotyledon were represented by 43 families 154 species and Monocotyledon 10 families 35 species. The most dominant families were Asteraceae (14%), Poaceae family (11%), followed by Fabaceae family (9%). As for life forms, they were classified according to Raunkiaer and were the most dominant as Therophytes (48%), Chamaephytes (15%), and Geophytes (11%).</p> Hamida M. Hamad Ensaf, H. Dakeel Fatma M. Alwishish Inas Saed Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 36 44 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2637 Effect of Exogenous Application of Nicotinic Acid on Genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress. http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2680 <p>Two experiments were conducted (laboratory and pot). The laboratory experiment represented the tolerance of ten durum wheat genotypes (ACSAD) to levels (20, 30, 40%) of seawater. The pot experiment evaluated the efficiency of foliar spraying of nicotinic acid for three election genotypes of durum wheat (ACSAD 1671, 1711, and 1765), Under seawater levels (20, 30%). The results of the laboratory experiment showed that revealed significant (p &lt; 0.05) differences in the genotypes’ response to salinity, the genotypes' (1671, 1711and 1765), were superior in recording the best average germination percentage and seedling length compared to the other genotypes. The results of the pot experiment showed, after 80 days of sowing, under seawater irrigation conditions, decreases in (Plant height, Leaf area /plant, Spike length, number of spikes/plant, number of grains/spike, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and total pigments) of the three durum wheat genotypes (ACSAD), compared to control. In contrast, foliar application of Nicotinic acid led to a significant decrease in a negative effect resulting from salinity for all vegetative growth parameters and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, especially with low concentrations of seawater. The (1671) genotype performed better than the (1711and 1765) genotypes in concern to high averages for all studied traits, under salinity and spraying with Nicotinic acid.</p> Sami M. Salih Ahmed A. Abdulrraziq Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 109 116 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2680 Isolation, Identification of Pectobacterium Bacteria Causing Soft Rot on potato Plant in Al Bayda - Aljabal Alakhdar http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2658 <p> This study aimed to isolate and diagnose the bacteria causing soft rot disease on Potatoes in some markets in the city of Al-Bayda, testing their pathogenicity, as well as testing their sensitivity to some antibiotics and biochemical tests. A bacterial isolate was obtained from tubers infected with soft rot disease and from all samples collected from some fields and stores in the markets of the city of Al-Bayda. The pathogenicity test on potato slices proved that the bacterial isolate was capable of causing the disease. The results of phenotypic and biochemical tests showed that the bacteria were <strong><em>Pectobacterium</em></strong>. A test showed sensitivity to some antibiotics.</p> <p>The results of this study showed that all tested antibiotics are toxic Against Pectobacterium, but to varying degrees, except for the antibiotic Tetracyclin But to varying degrees, the antibiotic was Erythromycine One of the most effective antibiotics, as it blocks the biosynthesis of Erythromycine Bacteria grow in an area with an average diameter of 3 cm They came with the antibiotic Amoxicilline It ranked second in terms of effectiveness, as the diameter of the area free of bacterial growth around the disc containing it reached an average of 1.5 cm, and the antibiotic Tetracyclin did not show any toxic effect on the bacteria. that The tested antibiotics differed in their effects Where the antibiotic Erythromycine was on the bacteria Highly effective while the antibiotic Amoxicilline was The effect was moderate, while the antibiotic Tetracyclin was Ineffective. This difference may be due to the fact that the tested antibiotics may They differ in their interaction with components of the bacterial cell wall or their contents. .</p> Hosnia Bofarwa Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 89 97 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2658 Isolation and Study of the Phenotypic Characteristics of Some Soil-borne Fungi in two Different Locations in Omar AL-Mukhtar University, Albyda, Libya http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2635 <p>Fungi play a crucial role in the terrestrial ecosystem, and they are responsible for many key steps in the maintenance of ecosystem stability, particularly by recycling the soil organic matter and mineral elements. Omar AL-Mukhtar University is located at Albayda city, eastern Libya. Where the diversity of soil fungal in this region has not yet been investigated. In this study, soil samples were collected from two different locations of university. Soil fungi were isolated using the soil dilution soil technique and PDA agar medium. As light difference in diversity of fungal was observed between both sites, where outcomes showed that the dominant genera detected belonged to the Ascomycota with fewer proportions belonging to Zygomycota. The frequent species were in decreasing order; <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em> spp, and <em>Trichoderma</em> spp.</p> Zainap Ab. Eesa Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 124 128 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2635 Building Recommender Systems with Machine Learning and Data Mining Techniques Building Recommender Systems with Machine Learning and Data Mining Techniques http://journal.su.edu.ly/index.php/jsfsu/article/view/2677 <p>The current study presents a unique use of machine learning algorithms for developing a recommendation system. Recommender systems are often employed in a wide range of industries, including e-commerce, entertainment, and search engines. Recommender systems are algorithms that utilize user preferences and behavior to recommend relevant objects, such as movies, books, goods, or songs. This article examines the many characteristics and features of different methodologies used in recommendation systems, with an emphasis on filtering and prioritizing important information to serve as a compass for searches. When recommender engines properly recommend individualized content or items, they provide businesses with a competitive advantage over rivals and generate considerable income. This study investigates content-based filtering, which suggests things with comparable attributes to those that a user previously liked. It also investigates hybrid filtering, which combines content-based and collaborative filtering techniques (using user-item interaction data) to solve issues such as the cold start problem (little user data) and data sparsity (few user-item interactions). The installed recommender systems that use content-based and hybrid filtering approaches produce promising individualized suggestions. Content-based filtering is particularly effective at proposing comparable goods, but hybrid filtering provides a more diversified and accurate suggestion pool by including user preferences. Content-based filtering has limits owing to data sparsity, which hybrid filtering addresses. This article discovered that the suggested technique uses content-based filtering when applied to small to medium-sized datasets. However, hybrid filtering is used when the dataset is vast and sparse.</p> Yousuf Maneetah Suhil Elsibai Ali Bouras Ahmed Alhabbh Fathia Elbadri Copyright (c) 2024 Scientific Journal for Faculty of Science-Sirte University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 4 1 80 88 10.37375/sjfssu.v4i1.2677