Impacts of Used Cigarette Butts on Soil Properties and Local Plants Growth
Keywords:Cigarette butts, Soil properties, Melilotus officinalis, soil
Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common litter item on Earth but no long-term studies evaluate their fate and ecological effects. They are prevalence wastes in the environment and hazardous wastes usually littered by smokers. The present study aimed to investigate the impacts of used cigarette butts on soil properties and local plants growth. A petri-dishes germination experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to examine the effects of cigarette’s butts extract (0, 30, 60 & 90%) on seed germination of some types of ornamental and wild plants (Moringa oleifera, Dodonaea viscosa, Melilotus officinalis, Chrysanthemum indicum). Results reflected significant changes and impediments to germination by increasing butts extracts concentration. Cigarette butts inhibited bacterial community, where the higher reading was recorded with control ≥ 3.00×10-7 CFU/ml, followed by 2.81×10-7 CFU/ml for 30% butts extracts, 2.29×10-7 CFU/ml for 60% treatment and the lowest was 4.00×10-5 CFU/ml for 90%. One-month plant species (Melilotus officinalis) was grown in Clay loam soil pots treated with 0, 1, 6 & 9 cigarette butts to examine their effects on soil characterization. The results indicated that cigarette butts able to affect the soil physico-chemical properties, where they increased the pH, EC & Soil alkalinity in tested soil. Sodium concentration were increased from 11.9 to 103.0 mg/kg.
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