Sealer adaptation in the dentinal tubules: a scanning electron microscopic study


  • Showg A. Salem Department of Conservative and Endodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Sirte University, Sirte, Libya



Adaptability, Sealer-dentine interface, scanning electron microscope, Tech Biosealer Endo


Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of 3 different endodontic sealers to the root canal wall using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Methods: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were randomly classified into three equal main groups according to the type of sealer used: Tech Biosealer Endo, Flavonoid-based experimental sealer and MTA-Fillapex sealer. All root canals in this study were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral condensation technique after preparing mix from each tested sealer. The samples were examined under SEM to determine two main aspects: Gap and Interface.
Results: The result indicated that Tech Biosealer Endo had shown the best adaptation to canal walls at all root levels, followed by the MTA-Fillapex, and the most diminutive adaptation was seen in the Flavonoid-based experimental sealer. SEM showed the best adaptation for all tested sealers to root dentin was at the middle root level, followed by the apical root level, while the coronal root level showed the worst adaptation (p<.05).
Conclusions: SEM analysis indicated that among the tested sealers, Tech Biosealer Endo achieved the best overall adaptability to root dentin, particularly at the middle root level. This suggests that sealer composition significantly influences the quality of the interface between the sealer and root canal walls, impacting the potential for successful endodontic treatment outcomes.


Walton, R. E., & Torabinejad, M. (2002). Pulp and periradicular pathosis. In R. E. Walton & M. W. Torabinejad (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Endodontics (pp. 28–48). Philadelphia: Saunders Company.

Sevimay, S., & Dalat, D. (2003). Evaluation of penetration and adaptation of three different sealers: A SEM study. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 30, 951–955.

Ishley, D. J., & ElDeeb, M. E. (1983). An in vitro assessment of the quality of apical seal of thermomechanically obturated canals with and without sealer. Journal of Endodontics, 9, 242–245.

Lee, S. J., Monsef, M., & Torabinejad, M. (1993). Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate for repair of lateral root perforations. Journal of Endodontics, 19, 541–544.

Lolayekar, N., Bhat, S. S., & Hegde, S. (2009). Sealing ability of ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus simulating a one-step apical barrier technique - An in vitro study. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 33, 305–310.

de Leimburg, M. L., Angeretti, A., Ceruti, P., Lendini, M., Pasqualini, D., & Berutti, E. (2004). MTA obturation of pulpless teeth with open apices: Bacterial leakage as detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Journal of Endodontics, 30, 883–886.

Giuliani, V., Baccetti, T., Pace, R., & Pagavino, G. (2002). The use of MTA in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. Dental Traumatology, 18, 217–221.

Parirokh, M., & Torabinejad, M. (2010). Mineral trioxide aggregate: A comprehensive literature review - Part III: Clinical applications, drawbacks, and mechanism of action. Journal of Endodontics, 36, 400–413.

Šturm, L., & Ulrih, N. P. (2020). Advances in the propolis chemical composition between 2013 and 2018: A review. Efood, 1(1), 24–37.

Krell, R. (1996). Value-Added Products From Beekeeping. In FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 124 (2nd ed., Chapter 5: Propolis). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Mohamed, H., El-Ashry, S., & Mahmoud, A. (2012). The effect of citric acid concentration on the adaptability and bond strength of new resin root canal sealers, in vitro study. [Master's thesis, Ain Shams University].

Reyes-Carmona, J. F., Felippe, M. S., & Felippe, W. T. (2010). A Phosphate-buffered Saline Intracanal Dressing Improves the Biomineralization Ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Apical Plugs. Journal of Endodontics, 36, 1648–1652.

Vichi, A., Grandini, S., & Ferrari, M. (2002). Comparison between two clinical procedures for bonding fibre posts into a root canal: a microscopic investigation. Journal of Endodontics, 28(5), 355–360.

Grossman, L. I. (1981). Endodontic Practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Henry Kimpton Publishers.

Scheller, S., Ilewicz, L., Luciak, M., Skrobidurska, D., & Matuga, W. (1978). Biological properties and clinical application of Propolis IX. Investigation of the influence of EEP on dental pulp regeneration. Arzneimittelforschung, 28, 289–291.

Ahangari, Z., Naseri, M., Jalili, M., Mansouri, Y., Mashhadiabbas, F., & Torkaman, A. (2012). Effect of propolis on dentin regeneration and the potential role of dental pulp stem cell in Guinea Pigs. Cell Journal, 13(4), 223–228.

Camilleri, J. (2007). Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate. International Endodontic Journal, 40, 462–470.

De-Deus, G., Reis, C., Di Giorgi, K., Brandão, M. C., Audi, C., & Fidel, R. A. (2011). Interfacial adaptation of the Epiphany self-adhesive sealer to root dentin. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, 111, 381–386.

Tay, F., Loushine, R., Weller, R. (2005). Ultrastructural evaluation of the apical seal in roots filled with a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material. Journal of Endodontics, 31, 514–519.

Punitha, P. G., & Shashikala, K. (2011). Evaluation of Resin Based Sealers Epiphany Adaptation, AH plus and AH 26 to the Root Canal Dentin by Scanning Electron Microscope. Indian Journal of Stomatology, 2(4), 207–211.

Prati, C., & Mongiorgi, R. (2007). New Tetrasilicate Cements as Retrograde Filling Material: An in vitro study on fluid penetration. Journal of Endodontics, 33, 742–745.

Gandolfi, M. G., Taddei, P., Siboni, F., Modena, E., Ginebra, M. P., & Prati, C. (2011). Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: Early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 938–949.

Laird, D. A. (1996). Model for the crystalline swelling of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Clays and Clay Minerals, 44, 553–559.

Bray, H. J., & Redfern, S. A. T. (1999). Kinetics of dehydration of Ca-montmorillonite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 26, 591–600.

Gandolfi, M. G., Iacono, F., Agee, K., Siboni, F., Tay, F., Pashley, D. H., & Prati, C. (2009). Setting time and expansion in different soaking media of experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cement and ProRoot MTA. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, 108(6), e39–e45.

Gandolfi, M. G., & Prati, C. (2010). MTA and F-doped MTA cement used as sealers with warm gutta-percha—a long-term study of sealing ability. International Endodontic Journal, 43(10), 889–901.

Reyes-Carmona, J., Felippe, M., & Felippe, T. (2009). Biomineralization ability and interaction of mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement component of mineral trioxide aggregate with a phosphate-containing fluid. Journal of Endodontics, 33, 731–736.

Al-Haddad, A., Abu Kasim, N. H., & Che Ab Aziz, Z. A. (2015). Interfacial adaptation and thickness of bioceramic-based root canal sealers. Dental Materials Journal, 34(4), 516–521.

Prati, C., Siboni, F., Polimeni, A., Bossu, M., Gandolfi, M. G. (2014). Use of calcium-containing endodontic sealers as apical barrier in fluid-contaminated wide-open apices. Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials, 12(3), 263–270.

Gandolfi, M. G., Carlo, B. D., Sauro, S., Zanna, S., Prati, C., & Mongiorgi, R. (2005). New silicate mineral cement for endodontic: A dentin bond strength study. Journal of Dental Research, 84(Spec Issue), Abstract 384.