Sirte University Scientific Journal <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14.0pt;">SUSJ is a scientific refereed journal issued on behalf of Sirte University in a number of issues throughout the year interested in publishing research and documented studies in the field of applied sciences for university faculty members and other universities from inside and outside Libya. </span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14.0pt;">The views expressed in the publication are the individual opinion of the author(s) and they neither represents nor reflect the opinion of the editor and editorial board or Sirte University. </span></p> Sirte University en-US Sirte University Scientific Journal 2518-5454 Influence of E-Glass Fiber on the Properties of Fresh &Hardened Concrete <p style="text-align: justify;">Concrete is a composite material consist of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement and water. This material reigns supreme in the construction industry, captivating builders with its exceptional compressive strength, unwavering durability, and boundless versatility. Plain concrete has a very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. To enhance mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, tensile strength usually added fibers to it. Researchers are cheering the addition of fibers to various materials. This research discusses the effects of E- glass fibers on the mechanical properties and workability of concrete. Experimental programmer consists of conducting compressive strength test, flexural strength test and split tensile strength and workability of concrete containing varying proportions of E-glass fiber. In our research we used the E-Glass fibers at different percentages as 0%.0.2%,0.4%.0.6% by the volume of fracture on C30 grade of mix proportion (1: 3: 1.8) with water cement ratio 0.56. From the results of experiments turns out that the Adding 0.2% glass fibers to concrete significantly improves its flexural strength (11.7%) and slightly boosts compressive (4.4%) and splitting tensile (6.16%) strength at 28 days. GFRC specimens also exhibit more resilient behavior under testing compared to plain concrete. However, workability declines with increasing fiber content</p> Ahmed. M. Alsadaai Ghusen M. AL Kafri Aziza. Al jarari Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 10 1 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2793 Effect of Poultry Manure (litter) and Seagrass (Posidonia oceanic) Extract on Enhancing Pepper Plant Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted in the area of 27 East Sirte in 2022 to investigate the impact of different levels of poultry manure (poultry litter) extract (50 ml, 100 ml, 150 ml per irrigation process) and levels of Posidonia oceanic seagrass extract (50 ml, 100 ml, 150 ml) on enhancing resistance of pepper plants grown in pots to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). The results indicated a decrease in the severity of infection compared to the control. The infection rate in the control sample was 55%, while the lowest infection rate was observed with the treatment of 150 ml of poultry manure, showing a 13% infection rate. Seagrass extract treatments also demonstrated a significant impact on infection severity, with a decrease of 47%, 40%, and 36% for 50 ml, 100 ml, and 150 ml of seagrass extract, respectively. Overall, the addition of organic fertilizer to the soil led to improved resistance against CMV infection and stimulated growth in pepper plants. Application of organic fertilizer in agricultural soil is considered a practical method to mitigate the impact of climate change, improve plant productivity, and enhance disease tolerance for sustainable agriculture</p> Mohamed Ali A Salim Hassan A Mohmmed Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 17 11 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2794 Sealer adaptation in the dentinal tubules: a scanning electron microscopic study <p style="text-align: justify;">Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of 3 different endodontic sealers to the root canal wall using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).<br>Methods: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were randomly classified into three equal main groups according to the type of sealer used: Tech Biosealer Endo, Flavonoid-based experimental sealer and MTA-Fillapex sealer. All root canals in this study were obturated with gutta-percha using lateral condensation technique after preparing mix from each tested sealer. The samples were examined under SEM to determine two main aspects: Gap and Interface. <br>Results: The result indicated that Tech Biosealer Endo had shown the best adaptation to canal walls at all root levels, followed by the MTA-Fillapex, and the most diminutive adaptation was seen in the Flavonoid-based experimental sealer. SEM showed the best adaptation for all tested sealers to root dentin was at the middle root level, followed by the apical root level, while the coronal root level showed the worst adaptation (p&lt;.05).<br>Conclusions: SEM analysis indicated that among the tested sealers, Tech Biosealer Endo achieved the best overall adaptability to root dentin, particularly at the middle root level. This suggests that sealer composition significantly influences the quality of the interface between the sealer and root canal walls, impacting the potential for successful endodontic treatment outcomes.</p> Showg A. Salem Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 24 18 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2796 Comparative Analysis of Picocell and Femtocell Performance Utilizing Various Propagation Models <p style="text-align: justify;">This study provides an in-depth comparison of picocells and femtocells within 4G networks, employing various propagation models. Using both empirical and deterministic methodologies, the investigation thoroughly explores signal propagation, coverage, and capacity aspects of small cell deployments across different environmental conditions. Leveraging insights from multiple propagation models, the research elucidates the effectiveness of picocells and femtocells in urban, suburban, and rural settings. Crucially, these findings, obtained through a user-friendly GUI developed with MATLAB, offer valuable guidance for refining small cell network design and deployment strategies in 4G environments. This contributes significantly to ongoing discussions on optimizing small cell networks, underlining the importance of tailored approaches for efficient deployment and operation across diverse environmental landscapes.</p> Mohamed Abughalia Algaddafi Alpotte Mohammad Elmahdi Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 29 25 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2797 The Implementation of Fuzzy Logic and Fast Fourier Transformation in Image Processing (Linear & Non-Linear Filters) <p style="text-align: justify;">Fuzzy logic has several impacts on our daily life, and also offers a solution of non-linear problem of real world; expert systems and artificial intelligence. The use of fuzzy logic provides flexibility which is perfect for development of computer vision and image processing technologies. Image processing is a technique for adding effects to an image, obtaining an improved image, or obtaining some relevant information. The Fourier transform has a wide range of industrial applications, but it makes a significant contribution to image processing domains including image enhancement and restoration. This paper introduces applying the frequency domain (Fourier transform) and Spatial domain in image processing. The work divided to three main sections, the first section views literature review of Fuzzy logic, applications of fuzzy logic .Fast Fourier transform. The second section presents image processing; includes Frequency and spatial domain. Spatial domain proposes some selected filters (linear and non-linear). Frequency domain displays Fast Fourier transform equations to convert the processed data to fuzzy representation. Particularly Fourier theory of image processing procedures implemented using “MATLAB” software. The final section concluded the results and conclusion.</p> Aya Zidan Mohammed Najat Ali Atbaiga Souad Abummaryam and Naiema Mousa Amrayid Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 39 30 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2798 Design of Microwave Cavity for Heating Applications <p style="text-align: justify;">Much attention has been given to microwave technology&nbsp; due to their ability of reducing carbon emissions during heating in manufacturing operations. In comparison to conventional heating techniques, microwaves provide a number of benefits, such as faster heating, less thermal damage, and environmentally friendly processes. Heating must be consistent and effective for the use of microwaves in manufacturing process. In this paper, microwave cavity applicator was designed and simulated for heating applications. The cavity designed at frequency of 900 MHz to be accomplished to contain large size of samples. Distribution of the fields inside the cavity and the heating efficiency were simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software.</p> Fatma Shkal Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 43 40 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2799 Assessment of Common Oil Viscosity Correlations for Libyan Crude Oils <p style="text-align: justify;">Reservoir oil viscosity plays a key role in the design and optimization of injection/production strategies and surface facilities for efficient reservoir management. The direct measurement method to determine the viscosity of the reservoir fluid involves reservoir fluid sampling, which is costly and frequently unavailable. In the absence of experimentally measured properties of crude oils, the petroleum engineer must determine the properties from empirically derived correlations. The main aim of this paper is to test several well-known viscosity correlations against a new dataset collected from different Libyan crudes. Statistical analyses and graphical methods have been used simultaneously to evaluate the performance and accuracy of each correlation. For dead oil viscosities, none of the available correlations yielded satisfactory results and exhibited high errors; however, the Ng and Egbogah (1983) and Beggs-Robinson (1975) correlations have the lower errors with AAPE% of 31.18 and 33.66, respectively. For live oil viscosities, the Beggs-Robinson correlation (1975) proved to be more accurate than the others, with AAPE% of 20.17 and 24.96, respectively. Labedi (1982) and Khan <em>et al</em>. (1987) for undersaturated oil viscosity are the most reliable correlation equations among published correlations, with AAPE% of 3.01 and 3.60, respectively.&nbsp;</p> Saleh J. Arwini Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 52 44 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2800 Spectroscopic Study of Hydrazone-based Ligands as Calorimetric Reagents for Acetate Anion <p style="text-align: justify;">This study focuses on investigating the chromogenic properties of hydrazone compounds derived from the reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) with salicyaldehyde and 2-hydroxyacetophenone for anion recognition. Two chromogenic ligands, 2-[[2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazone]methyl]phenol (L1) and 1-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethanone-(2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazone) (L2), were synthesized and characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopy. The complexation abilities of these ligands towards various anions (acetate, chloride, carbonate, nitrate, fluoride, iodide, sulphite) were investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Both ligands showed higher selectivity towards the acetate anion in DMSO compared to the other anions. The complexes exhibited maximum absorptions (λmax) at 502 nm and 499 nm for L1 and L2, respectively. The Job plot results showed a 1:1 stoichiometry between the ligands and the acetate anion. The stability constants for both complexes were found to be 3.77×10-8 and 9.0 ×10-8, respectively. No significant interference from other anions on the complexes was observed. </p> Abdussalam Salhin Mohamed Soad Altif S. Krmous Ragwan Mohamed Ragwan Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 59 53 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2802 The effect of Solar Systems Connecting on water heating production <p style="text-align: justify;">The study is based on taking advantage of high solar radiation the possibility of applying parabolic cutting technology to produce steam in various thermal uses and proposes to captures a large portion of the diffuse solar radiation in addition to the direct component with a concentration rate of up to 92%. A computational model has been developed to assist in the design of two solar parabolic dishes.&nbsp; The solar parabolic dish was fabricated at Sirte University; an experimental investigation was carried out to verify its operation under outdoor test conditions.&nbsp; The glass dish test was carried out on 10<sup>th</sup> June 2020, from morning 07:00 to 17:00. Under this condition, measure the maximum outlet temperature of 96.7 <sup>0</sup>C, and solar radiation was 1005 W/m2.&nbsp; The aluminum dish test was carried out on the 11<sup>th</sup> june 2020, from 08:00 to 17:00. Under this condition, measure the maximum outlet temperature of 78˚C was reached with radiation 1050.5 W/m<sup>2</sup>. The absorber tube is a pipe placed at the focal line of each dish.&nbsp; The parallel and series connection configuration of the system investigated to evaluate the arrangement type's effect on the thermal performance. It has been found that the thermal performance in series connection is higher than the parallel connection; it takes longer time than the parallel connection to absorb the heat. The maximum outlet temperature for series and parallel connections are 99 <sup>0</sup>C and 93 <sup>0</sup>C respectively when flow rate 3 LPM.</p> Abdulkarim Khalifa Abulkarim Ahmed Masoud Qurbaj Copyright (c) 2024 جامعة سرت 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 14 1 65 60 10.37375/susj.v14i1.2803