Sirte University Scientific Journal <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14.0pt;">SUSJ is a scientific refereed journal issued on behalf of Sirte University in a number of issues throughout the year interested in publishing research and documented studies in the field of applied sciences for university faculty members and other universities from inside and outside Libya. </span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14.0pt;">The views expressed in the publication are the individual opinion of the author(s) and they neither represents nor reflect the opinion of the editor and editorial board or Sirte University. </span></p> en-US (Professor: Abdullah Ali Elamari) (Mahmoud Albarq) Sun, 17 Dec 2023 09:39:16 +0000 OJS 60 Design and Simulation of Torque Gauge Using Piezo-Resistive Duplex Strain <p>Practices of information technology in the field of engineering, especially in the field of designs in the science of mechanical engineering, have become an important matter in the technical world today. In this research, a torque measuring device has been designed and simulated using a Piezo resistive Duplex Strain as an alternative to a Piezoresistive V-shaped strain. The experimental factors in these fields are often associated with the precise measurement of strains found in the elastic region. Based on the software of ANSYS simulation result, a design of a piezo-resistive metal gauge on the solid shaft is created. Thus, a design incorporating the Piezo-Resistive Duplex Strain Gauge on the shaft of a torque sensor is performed. The results of the simulation revealed the amount of strain transferred from the shaft to the substrate, as well as to the gauge that can be attributed to the torque applied. Theoretical studies on the piezo-resistive metallic gauge found on a solid shaft as well as on the torque sensor are discussed. The maximum of 95.862με for every single Duplex Strain, as well as a maximum resistance change in gauge (grid) = 0.04Ω, is obtained for an applied torque value of 22.1Nm relating to the earlier design, which has a maximum of 127.29 με for using four sections and a maximum resistance change in gauge equal to 0.091Ω were achieved for an applied torque of 22.0725 Nm. It can be said that Modeling and Simulation have become an integral part of research and development across many fields of study, having evolved from a tool to a discipline in less than two decades. Modeling and Simulation Fundamentals offers a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the subject matter and includes definitions, paradigms, and applications to provide skills needed to work successfully as developers and users of modeling and simulation.</p> M. Hilal Muftah, , K. Petroczki, Omar M. Salih, A. A. Borhana, and E. Awad Khidir Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth Mechanism, Kinetics and Thermodynamics Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Aqueous Seeds Extract of Ziziphus Spina-Christi <p>in the present study, silver nanoparticles, Ag-NPs have been prepared by a Aqueous Seeds Extract of Ziziphus Spina-Christi as reducing agent and a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>). From poly nuclear growth rate model, the rate of growth was found to be equals 0.0011 nm/min. Different morphologies of silver colloids could be obtained using different temperature. The reduction kinetic of Ag<sup>+</sup> was followed the second order model. Also, the synthesis of Ag-NPs was endothermic reaction and spontaneous at medium and high temperature while non spontaneous at low temperature. Gibbs free energy of formation was not constant and was changed with radios of Ag-NPs</p> Abudelrhman Faraj, Mohamed Erhayem, Mansour Faraj Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Comparison Between Conductive and Capacitance Wire-Mesh Sensors to Predict Gas Void Fraction and Flow Regimes in Vertical Pipes <p>A comparative study of conductive and capacitance wire-mesh sensors was carried out for a wide range of gas velocities and for a fixed liquid velocity of 1.5 m/s. The two instruments were mounted on the vertical pipe at the highest and lowest positions of the downward and upward orientations in order to predict the gas void fraction and establish various flow regimes. The principle of conductive WMS is based on the discrepancies between the conductivity of the gas and liquid, while the principle of capacitance WMS is based on the variation of the permittivity between the two-phase. During the run of the experiments, the frequency was set at 1,000 Hz for one minute.</p> <p>Averaged time traces of gas void fraction and its probability density function (PDF) and distributions of gas void fraction were applied to confirm the similarities or discrepancies between the two techniques. It was observed that the gas void fractions obtained by both techniques displayed similar behavior. Although conductive WMS exhibited higher void fraction values than those measured by capacitance WMS.</p> <p>The cross-sectional and sliced images (i.e., reconstructed images) were also extracted from conductive and capacitance wire-mesh sensors at higher and lower locations of the upward section, which were used as another means to confirm the above-mentioned results. It was noted from the images that both devices depicted similar flow patterns for each particular flow rate.</p> Almabrok Abushanaf Almabrok Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene <p>In this study, polypropylene (PP) samples were manufactured using the hot-pressing technique. The influence of gamma ray irradiation exposure time (0, 2, 4, and 6 hours) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of commercial polypropylene (PP) has been investigated using an optical microscope and tensile test. All the samples were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air. The microstructure and tensile tests were performed for non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The results show that the microstructure of polypropylene changes from a rough surface to fracture-like defects at 2, 4, and 6 hours. The stress and strain of polypropylene (PP) are increased markedly at an exposure time of 4 hours. It is identified that the tensile stress and strain have increased to 21.5 MPa and 7.2%, respectively, which amounts to an improvement of 30.3% and 24.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the irradiation exposure time of 6 hours can deteriorate the mechanical properties; it is identified that the stress and strain are decreased to 19.42 MPa and 6.6%, respectively.</p> A. A.KHALIL Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Study of Faults Arising on a DC Brushed Shunt Motor <p>Faults do sometimes occur in direct current (DC) electrical machines result in a very costly downtime and safety concerns. Brushed type DC motors are cheap and easy to install, thus maintain a significant presence in the automotive, aerospace, and home appliance industries. Despite the popularity, faults occur which make analysis and detection of faults very important. Since there are many types of machines and each type has its own behavior when a fault developed, so that only with considerable experience can the cause of failure be correctly identified from the symptoms alone. In this paper a various faults mechanisms of brushed DC shunt motor are presented experimentally. Experimental results demonstrated how DC shunt motor are affected by various faults during the operation. &nbsp;The experiment results can be used to prove the validity of any method for modelling based fault diagnosis, detection and fault confirmation in DC motor, especially in the laboratories that have shortage in equipment.</p> Mohamoud O. Alamyal, El-Sharif A. Omer, Ibrahim Daho, Asmaeil Heeblu4 Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nickel (II) Biosorption from Aqueous Solution by Unmodified Eucalyptus Myrtaceae Leaves <p>The present work investigated the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto the surface of Eucalyptus Myrtaceae leaves (EMLs) as a cheap and ecofriendly biomass adsorbent. The plant leaves were used as raw material without any chemical treatments. The parameters impacting Ni(II) adsorption onto EMLs such as contact time, EMLs dose, initial pH, initial Ni(II) concentration and temperature were investigated. Results showed that the removal of Ni(II) cations from aqueous solution are depended on adsorbent dose, time contact, pH and initial ion concentration. The equilibrium data had been fitted very well with Langmuir isotherm (R<sup>2</sup>=0.9990) and pseudo-second-order model for kinetic studies (R<sup>2</sup>=0.9773). The adsorbed Ni(II) onto EMLs would initialized in 10 min and then the system approached equilibrium within 70 min. The amount of Ni(II) removal was found dependent upon the adsorbent dose and the pH of the initial solution. The optimum pH required for maximum Ni(II) adsorption was 5.5 with the adsorption efficiency equals to 78.1% and adsorption capacity of 7.59 mg/g.</p> Maryam Soliman Saleh Bakory, Ashraf Mustafa Abusniena, Abdussalam Salhin Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Occurrence and Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Frozen Fishes from the Local Market <p>Study of the levels of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the muscles, liver and gills of 5 frozen fish species from the Libyan market. Gas chromatographic analysis were employed for PAHs determination. Observed mean PAHs levels in the samples ranged from below detection limit (BD) of analytical instrument to 35.7 ng.g-1 in seriala dumerili, from BD to 30.5 ng. g-1 in pagellus acarne , from BD to 24.7 ng. g-1 in Mullus barbatus. From BD to 27.9 ng. g-1 in pagellus bogaraveo and from BD to 28.0 ng.g-1 in Gilthead seabream. chrysene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and Benzo(g,h,i)perylene in a detectable concentration ranging from 0.35 ngg-1 in the muscles of seriala dumerili to 4.81 ngg-1 in the gills of pagellus acarne.</p> Fakhri A. Elabbar,, Nabil R. Bader, Tahani M. Awin, Ahmed Y El-Denali, Nawal M. A Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The protective effects of rutin and stem cells against the kidney function changes induced by paracetamol in rats. <p>The aim of study was the evaluation of proficiency of rutin and stem cells on the kidney function changes induced by paracetamol in rats. 70 male rats were divided into two main studies. Primary study was used twenty young rats used as a source of bone marrow-derived MSCs. Secondary study were used fifty adult male rats which divided into 5 groups: Group (1) control group; group (2) were administrated of PCM (750 mg/kg b.w./every 72h) orally for 21 days, then left for 30 and 60 days without treatment, group (3) were administrated of PCM for 21 days then, treated with rutin (25mg/kg b.w/d) for 30 and 60 days, group (4) were administrated of PCM for 21 days then, the rats were injected by BM-MSCs (1.5x 106 cells in 0.5 PBS) in the tail vein&nbsp; for 30 and 60 days, and group (5) were administrated of PCM for 21 days then, the rats were injected by BM-MSCs in the tail vein, then treated with rutin for 30 and 60 days. PCM administration significantly increased the creatinine, urea levels with decreasing the albumin level when compared with normal rats at 30 and 60 days. While, rats treated with Q-3-R and MSCs showed a significant decrease in the creatinine, urea levels with increasing the albumin level when compared with PCM rats at 30 and 60 days. The rutin and BM-MSCs have the effects of the antioxidant activities, anti-inflammation and tissue regeneration on the PCM-induced kidney toxicity in rats.</p> Rabihah E. A. Elduob, Eda M. A. Alshailabi, Samia M. Efkeren Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Oxidative Stress in Brain Induced by Artificial Sweetener (Saccharin) and the Possible Influence of the Coenzyme Q 10 in Male Rats. <p>: Food additives draw in customers, enhance food quality, help people lose weight, and substitute sugar in food—all while having a potentially harmful impact on the health of both adults and children.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To look into the negative effects of saccharin (Sac) on oxidative stress in brain tissue and determine the protective effects of CoQ10 on brain tissue.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Six groups of ten rats each were created out of the sixty rats. 1st control group, 2nd treated with 20 mg/kg of CoQ10 b.wt. 3rd treated with Sac 1/10 LD50, 4th treated with Sac 1/20 LD50, 5th treated with Sac 1/10 LD50 plus CoQ10 and 6th treated with Sac 1/20 LD50 plus CoQ10. Sac and CoQ10 were taken orally for a duration of thirty days. Then brain oxidative stress tests were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Saccharin at both low and high dosages showed a notable rise in brain oxidative markers (GSSG, NO and 8OHDG) in contrast to the group under authority. However, in contrast, CoQ10 supplementation reduced brain oxidative markers (GSSG, NO and 8OHDG) compared to Sac groups and nearly recovery in comparison with a control cohort.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>It is possible to draw the conclusion that saccharin has negative effects on brain tissue and raises oxidative indicators both at low and high dosages. However, applications of CoQ10 showed reduction in brain oxidative stress markers and protection from oxidative damage.</p> Barga Aboukhzam farag aboukhzam Copyright (c) 2023 جامعة سرت Sun, 17 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000