Anchor Angle and its Role on Stability of Anchored Retaining Walls
Keywords:Anchored Wall, Anchor Angles, Wall Properties, Soil Strength
The purpose of this research is applying PlAXIS 2D in modeling of an anchored retaining wall with different combinations of behavior of the anchored wall and prepare data base that can serve the design requirements of anchored retaining walls in Libya. The structural design of the anchored wall by PLAXIS finite element software, considers soils on the back and front of the wall as well as the soil under the wall. So, this research takes into account the effect of soil under wall on wall behavior. The effect on wall is studied in terms of wall displacement, wall bending moments, wall shear forces, and soil stresses. The effect of anchor angles by using varying soil properties, wall & anchor properties, and loads behind the wall on the wall behavior has been investigated as well. The results proved the applicability of Plaxis model in responding to different combinations of wall and soil parameters, and showed different structural behavior by the anchored wall with every change in wall and soil parameters. So, findings corresponding to different combinations of parameters were prepared for the sake of any related future research.
F. H. Chehade', W. Chehade', H. Mroueh, & L Shahrour." Numerical Finite Element Analysis of the Behavior of Structure Near to Deep Excavations in Urban Area." International Review of Mechanical Engineering (l.RE.M.E.), Vol. 2, No. 2 March 2008.
N. S. Nikiforova." Reduction of Geotechnical Risk for Deep Excavations in Urban Settings.' Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,( Osnovaniya, Fundamenty, Russian) Vol. 42, No. 5, 2005
Dinakar K N. " Behaviour of Tie Back Sheet Pile Wall for Deep Excavation using Plaxis." International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. 03(18):97—103, DOI:10.15623/ijret.2014.0318016.
Ching, F. D., Faia., R., S., & Winkel, P. Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International Building Code (2 ed.). New York, NY: Wiley; 2006.
Crosbie, M. & Watson, D. (Eds.). Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005.
National Cooperative Highway Research (NCHR). Seismic analysis and design of retaining walls, buried structures, slopes, and embankments. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC; 2008.
California Dot.www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/techpubs/manual. “Retaining walls design.” Bridge Design Specifications; 2004.
Ömer Bilgin. Effect of subsurface soil conditions on floodwall behavior. IFCEE Conference, Florida; 2009.
Dawkins, William P.. Investigation of wall friction, surcharge loads, and moment reduction curves for anchored sheet-pile walls. US Army Corps of Engineering, Engineer Research and Development Center; 2001.
Marr, W.A., and Christian, J.T. “Permanent displacements due to cyclic wave loading.” Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE 107 (GT8); 1981.
Excavation Pits-Sructure solutions. www.bauer.de/en/bst/structure-solutions. BAUER Aktiengesellschaft ; 2010.
Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. Geotechnical design procedure for flexible wall systems. State of New York Department of Transportation; 2007.
Woodward, John. An Introduction to geotechnical processes. Spon Press in the USA and Canada; 2005.
Bear Creek Dam, Russellville. www.moretrench.com/services-article.php/structural-excavation. “Strut Anchor.” Article Php; 2012.
Sarsby, Robert. Environmental Geotechnics. Thomas Telford Publishing, London; 2000.
Foundation Piling LTD. www.retaining wall-solution.com/anchored-solutins.html. “Retaining wall solutions.” Technical Office in Thornburg, Bristol; 2011.
Mohamad Gabar & Ömer Bilgin. Effect of subsurface conditions on the behavior of retaining wall. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), 2016; Vol.13, Issue 1Ver.; PP51-67
Weber, Richard P. Earth pressure and retaining wall basics. PDF Course, 2010.
Tsinker, Gregory P. Planning construction, maintenance, and security. Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2004.
Sabatini, P.J., Pass, D.G., and Bachus, R.C. Geotechnical engineering circular No.4 ground anchors and anchored systems. U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration; 1999.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Applied soil mechanics with ABAQUS applications. New Jersey, Canada; 2007.
PLAXIS 2D.www.thepiratebay.se/torrent/plaxis-professional8.2, “PLAXIS civil engineering geotechnical CAD.” Version 8; 2002.
PLAXIS 2D. Essential for geotechnical professionals. Tutorial Manual; 2011.
Hoe, NG.. Numerical modeling of diaphragm wall in kuala lumpur limestone formation. Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Teknology: Malaysia; 2007.
Waterman, Dennis. Structural elements in PLAXIS. CG1 Chile; 2006.
EL-Sayed Abdel-Fattah, ALNos Hegazy, & Mahmoud Awaad,"Analysis of the behavior of inclined anchor by varying the inclination and elevation of tie," University of Benha, June,2018.