Control of Apple Fruit Rot Caused By Alternaria porri And Alternaria mali By Using Hot Water Treatment And Some Inorganic Salts

  • Aly Abdulla Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Sirte University, Sirte, Libya
  • Gazala Alhdad Department of Plant, Faculty of Science, University of Sirte, Sirte, Libya
Keywords: Apple, Fungi, Inorganic Salts, Hot water, Temperature.


Apple rot is one of the most important apple diseases worldwide. The disease causes significant losses in both the quantity and quality of apple fruits. In this study, the antifungal activity of hot water treatment and salts were investigated against apple fruit rots caused by Alternaria porri and Alternaria mali. Linear growth of tested fungi was inhibited at 5ºC, however, growth was increased by increasing storage temperature degree from 15ºC to 25ºC and decreased at 35ºC. On the other hand, hot water treatment at 55ºC significantly reduced the decay index and severity of infection. When salts such as potassium bicarbonate (KCO3), calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and ammonium bicarbonate (NH4CO3) was applied, a significant reduction in linear growth and fruit rot incidence was noticed using potassium bicarbonate. Calcium chloride, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate greatly inhibited growth of A. porri and A. mali. The most effective inhibitor of fruit decay was potassium bicarbonate and calcium chloride.


Abd-Allah,A.I. (2007). Studies on some potato storage disease agents and the effect of some physical and chemical treatments on their growth and development. Ph.D. Thesis. Fac. of Agric. Alex. Univ.

Bateman, D. F., and Lumsden, R. D. (1965). Relation of calcium content and nature of the pectic substances in bean hypocotyls of dif ferent ages to susceptibility of an isolate of Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 55:734-738.

Biggs,A.R. (1999). Effect of calcium salts on apple bitter rot caused by two Colletotrichium spp Plant Dis. 83:1001-1005.

Bulajic.A,. Filajdic N, Babovic M and .Sutton TB.(1996). First report of Alternaria mali on apples in Yugoslavia. Plant Disease .80(6):709-709. DOI:10.1094/PD-80-0709B.

Conway W.S., Gross K.C., Boyer C.D., Sams C.E. (1998). Inhibition of Penicillium expansum polygalacturonase activity by increased apple cell wall calcium. Phytopathology 78: 1052–1055.

Conway, W. S., Greene, G. M., II, and Hickey, K. D. (1987). Effects of preharvest and postharvest calcium treatments of peaches on decay caused by Monilinia fructicola. Plant Dis. 71:1084-1086. DOI: 10.1094/PD-71-1084.

Conway, W. S., Gross, K. C., and Sams, C. E. (1987). Relationship of bound calcium and inoculum concentration to the effect of postharvest calcium treatment on decay of apples by Penicillium expansum. Plant Dis. 71:78-80. DOI: 10.1094/PD-71-0078.

Conway,W.S.; C.E.;Sams, R.G. Gurie and Kelman,A.(1992). Calcium treatment of apples and potatoes to reduce postharvest decay Plant Dis.76:329-334. DOI: 10.1094/PD-76-0329.

Couey,H.M. (1989). Heat treatment for control of postharvest disease and insect pests of fruits. HortScience,24:198-202.

Dalphy O.C, .Harteveld, Olufemi A. Akinsanmi and Andre Drenth. (2014). Pathogenic variation of Alternaria species associated with leaf blotch and fruit spot of apple in Australia European Journal of Plant Pathology 139: 789-799.

Di Francesco A, Mari M, Roberti R (2018) Defense response against postharvest pathogens in hot water treated apples. Sci Hortic 227:181–186.

Ellis, M.B. (1971). Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. CMI. Kew, Surrey, England.

Fallik, E. (2004). Pre-storage hot water treatments, immersion ,rinsing and brushing. Postharvest Biology and Technology.,32:125-134.

Fallik,E.; Kelin,J.;Grinberg,S.;Garnbourg,M.;Klein,D. and Lurie,S.(1995). Pre-storage heat treatment reduces pathogenicity of Penicillium expansumin apple fruit. Pl. Pathol. 45: 92-97. 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1996.d01-99.x.

Farooq, S., Iqbal, S. M., and Abdulrauf, C. (2005). Physiological studies of Fusarium oxysporum. Inter. J. Agric. Bio. 7(2): 275-277.

Fry, S.C., 2004. Primary cell wall metabolism: tracking the careers of wall polymers in living plant cells. New Phytol. 161, 641–675.

Gagkaeva T and Levitin, M. (2000). Identification of the pathogen causing leaf spots on apple trees in Krasnodar province orchards. Mikol. Fitopatol.34(3):58-62.

Gasser F, Good C, Naef A (2015) Hot water treatment of selected organic apple and pear cultivars. Acta Hortic 1079:391–396.

Grahovac, M., Inđić, D., Tanović, B., Lazić, S., Vuković, S., Hrustić, J., & Gvozdenac, S. (2011). Integrated management of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot of apple. Pesticidi i fitomedicina, 26(4), 289-299.

Grahovac, M., Inđić, D., Vuković, S., Hrustć, J., Gvozdenac, S., Mihajlović, M., & Tanović, B. (2012). Morphological and ecological features as differentiation criteria for Colletotrichum species. Zemdirbyste Agriculture, 99(21), 89-196.

Grzegorzewska M, Badełek E , Szczech M b, Kosson R , Wrzodak A, Kowalska B, Colelli G , Szwejda-Grzybowska J, Maciorowski R (2022) The effect of hot water treatment on the storage ability improvement of fresh-cut Chinese cabbage Scientia Horticulturae 291 110551

Harteveid, D O.A,. Akinsanmi O A, Becker M.F and Drenth A. (2014). Comparative fitness of Alternaria species causing leaf blotch and fruit spot of apple in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 43: 495-501. DOI: 10.1007/s13313-014-0297-4.

Hervieux V, Yaganza ES, Arul J, Tweddell RJ.( 2002). Effect of Organic and Inorganic Salts on the Development of Helminthosporium solani the Causal Agent of Potato Silver Scurf. Plant Dis. 86:1014-1018.

Horst RK, Kawamoto SO, Porter LL. 1992. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and oils on the control of powdery mildew and black spot of roses. Plant Dis. 76: 247-251. DOI: 10.1094/PD-76-0247.

Ibrahim. M, 2A.B. Rabah, 1B. Liman and 1N.T. Ibrahim (2011) Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of Helminthosporium fulvum. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 19(1):127- 129

Jamar L.;Lefrancq B. and Lateur M. (2007). Control of apple scab(Venturia inaequalis) with biocarbonate salts under controlled environment. J .Pl. Dis. and Protection.114(5):221– 227.

Klein JD, Conway WS, Whitaker BD, Sams CE, 1997. Botrytis cinerea decay in apples is inhibited by postharvest heat and calcium treatments. Journal of American Society Horticultural Science 122, 91–94.

Koukounaras, A., Diamantidis, G., Sfakiotakis, E., 2008. The effect of heat treatment on quality retention of fresh-cut peach. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 48 (1), 30–36,

Kuepper G, Raeven T, Earles R. 2001. Use of baking soda as a fungicide. Available at:

Lieperuma, D.C.K; P.T. Galappatty and K.H. Sarananda.(2000). D. ChamaraK. IlleperumaP. Theja GalappattySarananda HewageSarananda Hewage ( Modified atmosphere packing of kolikutta banana at low temperature. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 75:95-96.

Lindsay R.C. 1985. Food additives. p. 664–665. In: “Food Chemistry” (O.R. Fennema, M. Dekker, eds.). Chapter 10, Inc., New York, USA.

Llyas, M.B; M.U. Ghazanfar, M.A. Khan, C.A. Khan and M.A.R. Bhatti.(2007). Postharvest losses in apple and Banana during transport and storage. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 44(3):534-539.

Loayza, F., Plotto, A., Baldwin, E.A., Bai, J., Dea, S., Brecht, J., 2012. Ewaluation of the hot water treatment on the sensory quality of fresh tomatoes. Acta Horticult. 934, 1305–1311.

Lurie, S. (2006). The effect of high temperature treatment on quality of fruits and vegetables. Acta hortic. 712, 165-174. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.712.16.

Lurie, S., (2006). The effect of high temperature treatment on quality of fruits and vegetables. Acta Hort 712, 165–172. ActaHortic.2006.712.16.

Malik, V. K., and Singh, S. (2004). Effect of temperature and relative humidity on teliospore germination in Ustilago hordei. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol., 34: 410-411.

Maouni A., Lamarti A., Aidoun A., Khaddor M., Badoc A. (2007). Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum rot during storage of pears. Afr. J. Biotech. 6: 1289–1292.

Maxin P (2012) Improving apple quality by hot water treatments. Dissertation, Aarhus University.

Maxin, P., Fieger-Metag, N., Benduhn, B., Kruse, P., Eyne, P.H., (2006). Hot water dipping in Northern Germany–on farm results after four years of scientific work. In: Boos, M.H. (ed.): Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing. FOKO, Weinsberg, Germany, 118–120.

Maxin, p., n. Fieger-metag, b. Benduhn, p. Kruse and p. Heyne (2006): Hot water dipping in Northern Germany– on farm results after four years of scientific work. In: Boos, M.H. (ed.): Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing. FKO, Weinsberg, Germany, 118–120.

Maxin, P., Weber, R.W.S., Pedersen, H.L., Williams, M., (2012). Hot-Water Dipping of Apples to Control Penicillium expansum, Neonectria galligena and Botrytis cinerea: Effects of Temperature on Spore Germination and Fruit Rots. European Journal of Horticulture Science 77, 1611–4426.

Maxin, P., Williams, M. & Weber, R. (2014) Control of Fungal Storage Rots of Apples by Hot-Water Treatments: A Northern European Perspective. Erwerbs-Obstbau 56, 25–34.

Mishra, P. K., & Thawani, V. (2016). Characterization of Alternaria alternate isolated from Calotropis gigantea plant leaf. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5, 459–466. DOI:

Mlikota F., Smilanick J.L. (1998). Control of Botrytis cinerea and postharvest gray mold on grapes with carbonate and bicarbonate salts. Phytopathology 88, p. 64.

Mlikota Gabler F, Smilanick JL. (2001). Postharvest Control of Table Grape Gray Mold on Detached Berries with Carbonate and Bicarbonate Salts and Disinfectants. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 52(1): 12-20.

Nahal, S. .El-Mougy and Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader. (2009). Salts application for suppressing potato early blight disease.J. of Pl. Prot. Res. 49(4):353-361. DOI:

Neelam S, Chennupati S, Singh S (2013) Comparative studies on growth parameters and physio-chemical analysis of Pleurotus Ostreatus and Pleurotus Florida. Asian Journal of Plant Science & Research 3(1): 163-169.

Nikolov,N.; K. Sakak Usheva and Christova (2013). Inhibitory effect of quaternary ammonium salts on the mycelium of Alternaria porri f.sp. solani causing early blight disease on tomatoes. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19 (3) 450- 453.

O’Donnell K (1979) Zygomycetes in culture, vol 2, Palfrey contributions in botany. Department of Botany, University of Georgia.

Olivier C, MacNeil CR, Loria R. (1999). Application of Organic and Inorganic Salts to Field-Grown Potato Tubers Can Suppress Silver Scurf During Potato Storage Plant Dis.;83(9):814-818. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.9.814.

P. Maxin1), R.W.S. Weber2), H. Lindhard Pedersen1) and M. Williams1) (2012) Hot-Water Dipping of Apples to Control Penicillium expansum, Neonectria galligena and Botrytis cinerea: Effects of Temperature on Spore Germination and Fruit Rots. European Journal of Horticultural Science 77(1) S. 1–9.

Palmer CL, Horst RK and Langhans RW. (1997). Use of bicarbonates to inhibit in vitro growth of Botrytis cinerea. Plant Dis. 81: 1432–1438. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.12.1432.

Petres M, Jelena Kalajdžić, Biserka Milić, Nenad Magazin, Aleksandra Stankov, Jelena Vukotić,•Mila Grahovac1 (2020) Effect of hot water treatments on apple fruit rot caused by Fusarium spp. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 127:651–655

Petres M, Medić J, Grahovac M, Stojšin V, Stankov A, Budakov D, Bagi F (2017) Parasitic and non-parasitic diseases of stored apple fruits, in Serbian. Biljni lekar 45:401–414.

Roinestad K.S., Montville T.J., Rosen J.D. (1993). Inhibition of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium tricinctum by sodium bicarbonate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 2344–2346.

Rotondo,F.; M. Collina, A. brunelli and BM Pryor.(2012).Comparison of Alternaria spp. Collected in Italy from apple with A. mali and other AM-Toxin producing strains.Phytopathol.102(12):1130-1142. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-04-12-0076-R.

Russell, N.J. and G.W. Gould, (1991). Food Management of diseases caused by soil-borne preservatives Blackie, London, pp: 20.

Schmitz H.(1930). Poisoned food technique. Indu.Eng .Chem.Analysis.2nd Ed.pp.333 – 361.

Shirzadeh E, Rabiei1 V and Sharafi Y (2011). Effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on postharvest quality of apple fruits African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(22), pp. 5139-5143,. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR11.1189.

Siddiq, M., Sogi, D.S., Dolan, K.D., )2013(. Antioxidant properties, total phenolics, and quality of fresh-cut ‘Tommy Atkins’ mangoes as affected by different pre-treatments. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 53, 156–162.

Singh S.N., Chand L.)1993(. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by garlic extract and sodium bicarbonate. Crop Res. 6: 149– 154.

Tian, S. P., Fan, Q., Xu, Y., & Wang, Y. (2001). Effects of Trichosporon sp in combination with calcium and fungicide on biocontrol of postharvest diseases in apple fruits. Acta Botanica Sinica, 43(5), 501-505.

Tohamy, M.R.A.; G.A.Helal,K.I.Ibrahim and Shadia ,A.Abd-El-Aziz (2004). Control of postharvest tomato fruit rots using heat treatments.Egypt.J.Phytopathol.32(1-2):129-138.

Trierweiler, B., H. Schirmer and B. Tauscher )2003(: Hot water treatment to control Gloeosporium disease during long-term storage. J. Appl. Bot. 77, 156–159.

Turkkan M. (2013). Antifungal Effect of Various Salts Against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, the Causal Agent of Fusarium Basal Rot of Onion. J. of Agric. Sci.. 19: 178-187.

White PJ and Broadley MR (2003). Calcium in plants. Ann. Bot., 92: 487-511.

Wisniewski, M. E., Droby, S., Chalutz, E., and Elam, Y. (1995). Effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ on Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and on the biocontrol activity of Candida oleophila. Plant Pathol. 44:1016-1024.

YacoubBatt (2005). Control of Alternaria spot disease on Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindi) using detached fruits and leaf-disk assay. J. Res. (19). 69-82.

Zaker M.(2014). Antifungal evaluation of some inorganic salts against three phyto-pathogenic fungi. International Journal of Agric. And Crop Sci.7:(14):1352-1358.

Ziv O. and Zitter T.A. )1992(. Effects of Bicarbonates and film-forming polymers on cucurbit foliar diseases. Plant Dis. 76: 513–517. DOI:10.1094/PD-76-0513.

How to Cite
Abdulla, A. and Alhdad, G. 2022. Control of Apple Fruit Rot Caused By Alternaria porri And Alternaria mali By Using Hot Water Treatment And Some Inorganic Salts. Scientific Journal for the Faculty of Science-Sirte University. 2, 1 (Apr. 2022), 47-56. DOI: